BIOL 404-Growth 2
Card Set Information
BIOL 404-Growth 2
BIOL 404 Growth
BIOL 404-Growth 2
General action of insulin on target cells
Stimulate anabolic enxyme
inhibit catabolic enzymes
increase # of facilitated diffusion transporter for glucose in adipose and muscle cells
What type of relationship does insulin and glucose have?
Increased plasma insulin causes what general things in most tissues?
increased glucose utilization
decreased plasma aas, FAs and glycerol
decreased glucose production
What levels and products act on the beta cell in the pancreas to control insulin levels?
Sympathetic activity/epinephrine (inhibits release)
Insulin causes what general type of metabolism in cells?
In what ways does insulin cause anabolism?
Glucose into glycogen
AAs into proteins
Fatty acids into triglycerides
Glucagon causes what general type of metabolism?
In what ways does glucagon cause catabolism?
glycogen to glucose
triglycerides to fatty acids
Somatostatin enahnces what hormone?
Which pancreatic hormone favors anabolism?
Which pancreatic hormone potentiates glycogenolytic activity of glucagon?
Which pancreatic hormone favors catabolism?
What blood level is glucagon sensitive to?
decreased glucose levels in the blood
increased plasma glucagon causes what in the liver?
Increased Ketone synthesis
What is the end effect of glucagon secretion?
increased plasma glucose and ketones
Plasma epinephrine acts similarly to what hormone in terms of glucose levels in teh blood?
Increased plasma epinephrine causes what actions in the Skeletal muscle?
Increased epinephrine in the blood has what effect on the liver?
Increased plasma epinephrine has what effect on adpose tissue?
The end effect of plasma epinephrine on plasma levels of metabolites is:
increased plasma glucose, FA and glycerol
When plasma glucose is low what organ secretes epinephrine?
sympathetic nerves stimulate hwat organs (directly) when plasma gluocse is low?
liver and adipose
Plasma epinephrine effects what organs to increase Glucose levels in the body?
What are fast ways of regulating the effects of insulin?
epinephrine and sypathetic activity
Slow effects of the regulation of insulin are:
cortisol has what effect on metabolism
Increases: gluconeogenisis, protein catabolism and lipolysis
The effects of Cortisol on liver metabolism are:
The effects of cortisol on the metabolism of muscle is:
The effect of cotrisol on the metabolism in adipose tissue is:
The effect of cortisol on the immune system is:
The net result of increased cortisol on metabolism is:
increased FA, AA and glucose in the plasma
Growth hormone has what end effects on metabolism?
increased bone and tissue growth
increased blood glucose
increased cartilage growth
cartilege growth is stimulated by GH directly (T/F)?
False, it is stimulated by insulin like growth factor that is produced in the liver in response to GH.
GH increases grwowth via what other signaling molecules?
T4, gonadotrphins and growth factor paracrines
In what three ways does GH increase metabolism?
promotes mucle growth and metabolism by facilitating amino acid transport
increases libolysis and fat usage
Decreases rate of carbohydrate use
Thriiodothyronin and Throxine effect metabolism by:
increasing protein synthesis
increasing size and number of mitochondria
increaing glycolysis and glycogenolysis
increase FFA availability
Which hormone increases the number of mitochondria and their size?
thyroxine and Triiodothyonine
Aiopocytes produce what metabolic effector molecule?
Leptin is produced by what cells?
The action of leptin is to:
When is Leptin secreted?
When energy expenditure is less than energy intake
when fat is being deposited into apidocytes
When fat is deposited in adipose tissue what metabolic effector molecule is secreted?
Leptin acts on what organ?
The end action of leptin is:
decreased energy intake
incresaed metabolic rate
What are the four counter regulatory controllers for glucose?
What are the actions of glucose, epinephrine, cortisol and GH on metabolism?