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General action of insulin on target cells
- Stimulate anabolic enxyme
- inhibit catabolic enzymes
- increase # of facilitated diffusion transporter for glucose in adipose and muscle cells
What type of relationship does insulin and glucose have?
Increased plasma insulin causes what general things in most tissues?
- increased glucose utilization
- decreased plasma aas, FAs and glycerol
- decreased glucose production
What levels and products act on the beta cell in the pancreas to control insulin levels?
- amino acids
- parasympathetic activity
- Sympathetic activity/epinephrine (inhibits release)
Insulin causes what general type of metabolism in cells?
In what ways does insulin cause anabolism?
- Glucose into glycogen
- AAs into proteins
- Fatty acids into triglycerides
Glucagon causes what general type of metabolism?
In what ways does glucagon cause catabolism?
- glycogen to glucose
- triglycerides to fatty acids
Somatostatin enahnces what hormone?
Which pancreatic hormone favors anabolism?
Which pancreatic hormone potentiates glycogenolytic activity of glucagon?
Which pancreatic hormone favors catabolism?
What blood level is glucagon sensitive to?
decreased glucose levels in the blood
increased plasma glucagon causes what in the liver?
- Increased gluconeogenisis
- Increased glycogenolysis
- Increased Ketone synthesis
What is the end effect of glucagon secretion?
increased plasma glucose and ketones
Plasma epinephrine acts similarly to what hormone in terms of glucose levels in teh blood?
Increased plasma epinephrine causes what actions in the Skeletal muscle?
Increased epinephrine in the blood has what effect on the liver?
Increased plasma epinephrine has what effect on adpose tissue?
The end effect of plasma epinephrine on plasma levels of metabolites is:
increased plasma glucose, FA and glycerol
When plasma glucose is low what organ secretes epinephrine?
sympathetic nerves stimulate hwat organs (directly) when plasma gluocse is low?
liver and adipose
Plasma epinephrine effects what organs to increase Glucose levels in the body?
- Skeletal Muscle
What are fast ways of regulating the effects of insulin?
- glucagon release
- epinephrine and sypathetic activity
Slow effects of the regulation of insulin are:
cortisol has what effect on metabolism
Increases: gluconeogenisis, protein catabolism and lipolysis
The effects of Cortisol on liver metabolism are:
The effects of cortisol on the metabolism of muscle is:
The effect of cotrisol on the metabolism in adipose tissue is:
The effect of cortisol on the immune system is:
The net result of increased cortisol on metabolism is:
increased FA, AA and glucose in the plasma
Growth hormone has what end effects on metabolism?
- increased bone and tissue growth
- increased blood glucose
- increased cartilage growth
cartilege growth is stimulated by GH directly (T/F)?
False, it is stimulated by insulin like growth factor that is produced in the liver in response to GH.
GH increases grwowth via what other signaling molecules?
T4, gonadotrphins and growth factor paracrines
In what three ways does GH increase metabolism?
- promotes mucle growth and metabolism by facilitating amino acid transport
- increases libolysis and fat usage
- Decreases rate of carbohydrate use
Thriiodothyronin and Throxine effect metabolism by:
- increasing protein synthesis
- increasing size and number of mitochondria
- promoting cell uptake of glucose
- increaing glycolysis and glycogenolysis
- increase FFA availability
Which hormone increases the number of mitochondria and their size?
thyroxine and Triiodothyonine
Aiopocytes produce what metabolic effector molecule?
Leptin is produced by what cells?
The action of leptin is to:
When is Leptin secreted?
- When energy expenditure is less than energy intake
- when fat is being deposited into apidocytes
When fat is deposited in adipose tissue what metabolic effector molecule is secreted?
Leptin acts on what organ?
The end action of leptin is:
- decreased energy intake
- incresaed metabolic rate
What are the four counter regulatory controllers for glucose?
What are the actions of glucose, epinephrine, cortisol and GH on metabolism?