BIOL 404-Growth 2

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Author:
kyleannkelsey
ID:
210718
Filename:
BIOL 404-Growth 2
Updated:
2013-04-06 13:41:54
Tags:
BIOL 404 Growth
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Description:
BIOL 404-Growth 2
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  1. General action of insulin on target cells
    • Stimulate anabolic enxyme
    • inhibit catabolic enzymes
    • increase # of facilitated diffusion transporter for glucose in adipose and muscle cells
  2. What type of relationship does insulin and glucose have?
    reciprocal
  3. Increased plasma insulin causes what general things in most tissues?
    • increased glucose utilization
    • decreased plasma aas, FAs and glycerol
    • decreased glucose production
  4. What levels and products act on the beta cell in the pancreas to control insulin levels?
    • incretins
    • glucose
    • amino acids
    • parasympathetic activity
    • Sympathetic activity/epinephrine (inhibits release)
  5. Insulin causes what general type of metabolism in cells?
    anabolism
  6. In what ways does insulin cause anabolism?
    • Glucose into glycogen
    • AAs into proteins
    • Fatty acids into triglycerides
  7. Glucagon causes what general type of metabolism?
    Catabolism
  8. In what ways does glucagon cause catabolism?
    • glycogen to glucose
    • triglycerides to fatty acids
  9. Somatostatin enahnces what hormone?
    glucagon
  10. Which pancreatic hormone favors anabolism?
    insulin
  11. Which pancreatic hormone potentiates glycogenolytic activity of glucagon?
    somatostatin
  12. Which pancreatic hormone favors catabolism?
    glucagon
  13. What blood level is glucagon sensitive to?
    decreased glucose levels in the blood
  14. increased plasma glucagon causes what in the liver?
    • Increased gluconeogenisis
    • Increased glycogenolysis
    • Increased Ketone synthesis
  15. What is the end effect of glucagon secretion?
    increased plasma glucose and ketones
  16. Plasma epinephrine acts similarly to what hormone in terms of glucose levels in teh blood?
    glucagon
  17. Increased plasma epinephrine causes what actions in the Skeletal muscle?
    increased Glycogenolysis
  18. Increased epinephrine in the  blood has what effect on the liver?
    • Increased:
    • glycogenolysis
    • gluconeogenisis
  19. Increased plasma epinephrine has what effect on adpose tissue?
    Increased Lipolysis
  20. The end effect of plasma epinephrine on plasma levels of metabolites is:
    increased plasma glucose, FA and glycerol
  21. When plasma glucose is low what organ secretes epinephrine?
    adrenal medulla
  22. sympathetic nerves stimulate hwat organs (directly) when plasma gluocse is low?
    liver and adipose
  23. Plasma epinephrine effects what organs to increase Glucose levels in the body?
    • Skeletal Muscle
    • Liver
    • Adipose
  24. What are fast ways of regulating the effects of insulin?
    • glucagon release
    • epinephrine and sypathetic activity
  25. Slow effects of the regulation of insulin are:
    • Cortisol
    • GH
    • Thyroid
    • Leptin
  26. cortisol has what effect on metabolism
    Increases: gluconeogenisis, protein catabolism and lipolysis
  27. The effects of Cortisol on liver metabolism are:
    gluconeogenesis
  28. The effects of cortisol on the metabolism of muscle is:
    protein catabolism
  29. The effect of cotrisol on the metabolism in adipose tissue is:
    lipolysis
  30. The effect of cortisol on the immune system is:
    function supressed
  31. The net result of increased cortisol on metabolism is:
    increased FA, AA and glucose in the plasma
  32. Growth hormone has what end effects on metabolism?
    • increased bone and tissue growth
    • increased blood glucose
    • increased cartilage growth
  33. cartilege growth is stimulated by GH directly (T/F)?
    False, it is stimulated by insulin like growth factor that is produced in the liver in response to GH.
  34. GH increases grwowth via what other signaling molecules?
    T4, gonadotrphins and growth factor paracrines
  35. In what three ways does GH increase metabolism?
    • promotes mucle growth and metabolism by facilitating amino acid transport
    • increases libolysis and fat usage
    • Decreases rate of carbohydrate use
  36. Thriiodothyronin and Throxine effect metabolism by:
    • increasing protein synthesis
    • increasing size and number of mitochondria
    • promoting cell uptake of glucose
    • increaing glycolysis and glycogenolysis
    • increase FFA availability
  37. Which hormone increases the number of mitochondria and their size?
    thyroxine and Triiodothyonine
  38. Aiopocytes produce what metabolic effector molecule?
    Leptin
  39. Leptin is produced by what cells?
    Adipocytes
  40. The action of leptin is to:
    reduce appetite
  41. When is Leptin secreted?
    • When energy expenditure is less than energy intake
    • when fat is being deposited into apidocytes
  42. When fat is deposited in adipose tissue what metabolic effector molecule is secreted?
    leptin
  43. Leptin acts on what organ?
    Hypothalmus
  44. The end action of leptin is:
    • decreased energy intake
    • incresaed metabolic rate
  45. What are the four counter regulatory controllers for glucose?
    • glucagon
    • epinephrine
    • cortisol
    • GH
  46. What are the actions of glucose, epinephrine, cortisol and GH on metabolism?

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