The end of the Invertebrates

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ash3ach
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210727
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The end of the Invertebrates
Updated:
2013-04-01 14:22:59
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life 103
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test 3
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  1. Tigriopus californicus
    • krill
    • phylum arthropoda
  2. phylum Arthropoda
    • There are about 10 to the 18th Arthropods alive on Earth
    • By Diversity, distribution and numbers Arthropods are the most successful phylum
    • Arthropod fossils date to the Cambrian Explosion (535-525 MYA)
  3. trilobites
    • Arthropods
    • Very successful and diverse
    • –17,000 known species
    • –Marine habitats
    • lasted from the Cambrian to the Permian period
  4. what makes an arthropod an arthropod
    • cuticle- the exoskeleton covering made of chitin and proteins
    • requires molting for growth
    • provides structural strength for animals on land
    • sensory organs
    • –Eyes
    • –Smell receptors
    • –Antennae for touch and smell
    • open circulatory system
    • hemolymph
    • gas exchange is done by different organs
    • –Aquatic species use gills
    • –Terrestrial species use internal surfaces specialized for gas exchange
  5. hemolymph
    is moved by the heart into spaces around tissues and organs called sinuses
  6. the arthropod body plan consists of?
    • –segmented body
    • –hard exoskeleton
    • –jointed appendages
  7. arthropods have what genes?
    • homeotic genes: sequences in the genome that provide location info
    • –In plants: MADS-box genes
    • –In animals: Hox (or HOM) genes
  8. what do hox genes do?
    • control the body plan of the embryo along the anterior-posterior (head-tail) axis during development
    • these genes 'tell' cells where they are
    • mutations in the hox genes result in misplaced structures
  9. what are the patterns of hox genes
    • Hox genes have increased over time
    • –Multiple copies indicate gene duplication events
    • –Most vertebrates have 4 Hox clusters
    • –Ray-finned fish have 8
    • –Echinoderms have 1
  10. arthropod anatomy
  11. subphylum Cheliceriformes
    • Cheilos–lips; cheir–arms chelicerae- pinchers or fangs
    • body composed of two parts
    • cephalothorax
    • abdomen
    • no antennae
    • earliest were water scorpions 
    • Most marine species extinct except for
    • –Sea spiders and horseshoe crabs
    • Horseshoe crabs
    • –Used in medical research and testing
    • –Used as bait
    • –Declining populations may be affecting the Red Knot and sea turtle populations
  12. arachnids
    • (cheliceriformes)
    • –Largest group
    • –Scorpions
    • –Spiders
    • –Ticks
    • –Mites
    • Cephalothorax has six pairs of appendages
    • –Chelicerae
    • pedipalps- used for sensing, feeding, reproducing
    • –Four pairs of legs
    • Spiders
    • –Chelicerae used to deliver poison and secrete digestive juices
    • –Drink their prey
    • –Book lungs used for gas exchange
    • –Silk is liquid protein used in webs and prey capture
  13. cheliceriformes cause many dieseases, examples?
    Lyme disease–Colorado tick fever–Tularemia–Relapsing fever–Babesiosis–Q fever
  14. subphylum Myriapoda
    • Millipedes and Centipedes
    • All are terrestrial
    • All have pair of antennae and three pairs of modified appendages serving as mouth parts
    • Segmented with two pairs of legs per segment in millipedes and one pair in centipedes
    • Millipedes are detritivores
    • Centipedes are carnivores
    • -have poison claws
  15. detritivores
    feed on detritus or organic waste
  16. subphylum hexapoda
    • More species in Hexapoda than all other forms of life combined
    • Insects and springtails
    • Six legs
    • Terrestrial, and fresh water
    • Flying species numerous
  17. incomplete metamorphosis
    • Nymphs (young) resemble small adults
    • –Series of molts making nymph look more like adult
    • –Final molt produces
    • Sexual maturity
    • Wings
  18. complete metamorphosis
    • –Specialized larval stage (grub, caterpillar, maggot)
    • –Larval stage looks different than adult
  19. Coleoptera
    • Coleoptera-beetles
    • 350,000 species
    • Complete metamorphosis
  20. Diptera
    • flies and mosquitoes
    • 151,000 species
    • Complete metamorphosis
  21. Hymenoptera
    • ants, bees, and wasps
    • 125000
    • social insects
    • complete metamorphosis
  22. Orthoptera
    • grasshoppers, crickets, katydids
    • 20000+
    • incomplete metamorphosis
  23. grasshopper anatomy
  24. subphylum Crustacea
    • Variable numbers of appendages
    • Gas exchange across cuticle or by gills
    • Isopods
    • Decapods
    • Copepods
  25. isopods
    • wood lice and many other species
    • terrestrial, marine, fresh water
  26. decapods
    • lobsters, crabs, and shrimp
    • carapace is hardened cuticle on dorsal cephalothorax
  27. copepods
    • krill and other species 
    • planktonic crustaceans
  28. phylum Echinodermata
    • Deuterostomes (like chordates)
    • Bilatera
    • –Larvae are bilateral
    • –Adults not truly radial
    • Sea stars, urchins, sea cucumbers
    • Water vascular system
    • –Used for movement, feeding, gas exchange
    • Sexual, usually with broadcast spawning
  29. seastar anatomy

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