Electricity Definitions

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Electricity Definitions
2013-04-23 21:44:44

Collection of Grade Nine electricity unit definitions.
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  1. What is Electricity
    A form of energy that results from the interaction of charged particles (protons and electrons).
  2. Static electricity
    A stationary electric charge that stays on an object instead of flowing away.
  3. Charging by Friction
    A process in which objects made from different materials rub together producing a net static charge on each object.
  4. Electrostatic Series
    A list of objects that have been arranged according to their ability to hold electrons.
  5. Insulator
    A material in which electrons flow with difficulty through atoms.
  6. Conductor
    A material in which electrons can flow easily through atoms.
  7. Semi-Conductor
    A material in which electrons can flow fairly well between atoms.
  8. Ground
    An object that can supply a number of electrons to, or take a number of electrons from, a charged object, thus neutralizing it.
  9. Electroscope
    A device for detecting the presence and determining the sign of electric charges by means of electrostatic attraction and repulsion, often between two pieces of gold leaf enclosed in a glass-walled chamber.
  10. Charging by Contact
    Generating a net charge on a neutral object by touching it with a charged object.
  11. Laws of Electric Charges
    Laws that describe how two objects interact electrically when one or both are charged.
  12. Electric Feild
    The property of the space around a charged object, where the effect of it's charge can be felt by other objects.
  13. Induced Charge Separation
    The movement of electrons in a substance, caused by the electric field of a nearby charged object, without direct contact between the substance and the object.
  14. Ion
    A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms.
  15. Lightning Rod
    A metal Sphere or point that's attached to the highest part of a building and connected to the ground.
  16. Electrostatic Precipitator
    A type of cleaner that removes unwanted particles and liquid droplets from a flow of gas.
  17. Van De Graff Generator
    A device that accumulates very large charges.
  18. Radiation Dosimeter
    A small device that detects and measures amounts of radiation.
  19. Electric Circuit
    A closed path along which electrons powered by a source can flow.
  20. Voltaic Cell
    A source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compound separated by a conducting material.
  21. Battery
    A connection of two or more cells.
  22. Electrode
    One of two metal terminals in a cell or battery.
  23. Electrolyte
    A solution or paste that conducts charge.
  24. Dry Cell
    A cell that contains an electrolyte that's made of a conducting paste.  
  25. Wet Cell
    A cell that contains an electrolyte that's made of a conducting liquid.
  26. Primary Cell
    A cell that can be used only once.
  27. Secondary cell
    A cell that can be recharged
  28. Fuel Cell
    A cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel that's stored outside of the cell.
  29. Terminal
    A position on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.
  30. Switch
    A control device that can complete or break the circuit to which it's connected.
  31. Open Circuit
    A circuit that contains a gap or break.
  32. Closed Circuit
    A circuit without interruption, providing a continuous path through which a current can flow.
  33. Electric Current
    A measure of the number of charged particles that pass by a point in an electric circuit each second. 
  34. Coulomb (C)
    the SI unit of quantity of electricity, equal to the quantity of charge transferred in one second across a conductor in which there is a constant current of one ampere.
  35. Ampere (A)
    The base SI unit of electrical current, equivalent to one coulomb per second, formally defined to be the constant current which if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross section, and placed one meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10 −7  newton per meter of length.
  36. Electrical Resistance
    A material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms
  37. Resistor
    A device used in an electric circuit to decrease the current through a component through a specific amount.
  38. Load
    A resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, motion, sound, or light.
  39. Potential Difference
    The difference between the potentials of two points in an electric field.
  40. Volt (Voltage)
    the SI unit of potential difference and electromotive force, formally defined to be the difference of electricpotential between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere, when the powerdissipated between these points is equal to one watt. Abbreviation:  V
  41. Circuit Diagram
    A diagram that uses standard symbols to represent the components in an electrical circuit and their connections.
  42. Series Circuit
    A circuit in which there's only one path along which electrons can flow.
  43. Parallel Circuit
    A circuit in which there's more than one path along which electrons can flow.
  44. Ohm's Law
    The ratio of potential difference (voltage) to current is a constant called resistance. 
  45. Ohm (Ω)
    The unit for resistance, equivalent to one volt per ampere (V/A) 
  46. Superconductor
    A material through which electric charge can flow with no resistance. 
  47. Non-ohmic
    Not following Ohm's law.
  48. Direct Current (DC)
    Current in which charged particles travel through a circuit in only One Direction.
  49. Alternating Current (AC)
    A current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit.
  50. Transformer
    An electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference (voltage) of an alternating current.
  51. Circuit Breaker
    A safety device that's placed in series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets. 
  52. Fuse
    A safety device that's found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it's placed in series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets.
  53. Electrical Power
    The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy.
  54. Watt (W)
    A unit of electrical power. 1 Kilowatt = 1000 Watts
  55. Kilowatt (kW)
    A practical unit of electrical power. 1kW = 1000W
  56. Electrical Energy
    The energy that's used by an appliance at a given setting; is determined by multiplying it's power rating by the length of time it's used.
  57. Kilowatt-hour (kW-h)
    The practical unit of electrical energy. 
  58. Smart Meter 
    A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically.
  59. Time of Use Pricing
    A system of pricing in which the cost of each kW-h of energy used is different at different times of the day. 
  60. Phantom Load
    The electricity that's consumed by an appliance or device when it's turned off.
  61. Efficiency
    The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input, expressed as a percentage.
  62. Base Load
    The continuous minimal demand for electrical power.
  63. Hydroelectric Power Generator
    The production of electricity using a source of moving water.
  64. Intermediate Load
    A demand for electricity that's greater that's greater than the base load and is met by burning coal and natural gas.
  65. Peak Load
    The greatest demand for electricity which is met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas.
  66. Renewable Energy Source
    A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively brief period of time.
  67. Non-Renewable Energy Source
    A source of energy that can't be replaced as quickly as it's used.
  68. Wind Farm
    Many large wind turbines at one location.
  69. Solar Energy
    Energy that's directly converted from the energy of the Sun into electricity.
  70. Photovoltaic Cell
    Photovoltaic cell, or solar cell, is a thin and and often very small semiconductor device, usually made from silicon, which converts light, e.g., sunlight, into electricity.
  71. Biomass Energy
    Biomass energy is energy derived from plants or plant-derived materials. Biomass can be converted into biofuels for transportation, biopower for heat and electricity and bioproducts for making things such as plastics.