BIOL 404-Growth 3
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What are cholesterols's essential roles?
- memrane fluidity
- digestion of fats
- steroid synthesis
Where is cholesterol mainly synthesized?
liver and GI
Liver cholesterol is secreted inwhat forms?
Cholesterol in the GI can be from the diet or the:
Diabetic Ketoacidosis occurs when:
impaired insulin activity causes ketones to be produced and acidosis to result.
Diabetic acidosis can lead to impaired brain function, coma and death via:
hyperglycemia induced diuresis which causes low blood volume and inability to delivery adequately to the brain.
During hyperglycemia induced diuresis we lose water by the loss of what?
What are the main segments of a long bone?
A plate that runs along the epiphysis and is the site of bone growth is called?
epiphysial growth plate
the hollow interior of a long bone is called the:
Osteocytes are found where?
Imbeded in the calcifeied matrix of the bone
The bones serve as a resevoir for what nutrients?
inorganic phosphate, calcium and minerals
What important tissue is made in the bone?
Which three bones largely function in protection?
Maturation occurs at the same rate in all tissues (T/F)?
False, maturation in the bones, gonads and nervous system happen at different times and rates
What instances provoke the release of GH?
What growth related actions does GH have?
- protein synthesis
- bone growth
- lipid metabolim
- CHO metabolism
What end product of GH stimulation inhibits Hypothalamitic release of GHRH and GH by the anterior pituitary?
IGF-1 release by the liver
In what way does GH promote growth?
It promotes precursor cells in the bone and other tissues to differentiate and secrete IGF-1 to stimulate cell division.
IGF-1 promotes growth by stimulating:
Precursor cells differentiate and produce IGF-1 in response to what anterior pituitary hormone?
What organs are primarily stimulated by GH to synthesize proteins?
What are the anti-insulin effects of GH?
- Makes adipoctes more responsive to lypolytic stimuli
- Stimulate gluconeogenesis
- Causes cells to be less sensitive to insulin
Growth in bones is indirectly or directly caused by GH?
Indirectly (it is caused directly by IGF-1)
What are positive stimulators of GH release?
- Ghrelin from the stomach
- GHRH from the hypothalamus
What are negative GH release stimulators?
The major targets of IGF-1 are:
- Myocytes of heart atria
- some epithelial cells
- cells in stomach
- small intestine
What is the major stimulus of postnatal growth?
insulin stimulates grwoth in what group?
Insulin stimulates postnatal growth indirectly by stimulating:
the release of IGF-1
Which ormones stimulate growth via protein synthesis?
- Testosterone (in males)
Thyroid hormone directly stimulates growth (T/F)?
False it is only permissive of GH secretion and development of CNS
The growth related actions of testosterone are:
- stimulates growth at puberty primary by GH
- stimulates epiphysial closure
- stimulates protein synthesis in males
Estrogen plays a role in growth by:
- stimulatung GH release in puberty
- stimulating epiphysial closure
Cortisol stimulates growth by:
- Flaso! it inhibits growth
- stimulated protein catabolism
Which hormone inhibits growth and promotes protein catabolism?
Which hormone stimulates prenatal growth?
which hormone stimulates postnatal growth, secretionof IGF-1 and protein synthesis but does not stimulate pernatal growth?
What hormones involved in growth stimulate spiphyseal growth plate closure?
Testosterone and Estrogen
Which hormone is permissive of GH growth and CNS development?
The thyroid receives blood flow from what major arteries?
Common carotid artery
The common carotid artery branches to feed the thyroid, what is the name of the branch?
Superior thyroid artery
The general position of the thyroid gland is:
inferior to the larynx and anterior to the trachea
Colloid in the thyroid serves what purpose?
Supplies for hormone production
Parafollicular cells of the thyroid produce what?
Calcitonin has what action?
Principal cells of teh thyroid produce what?
Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine
Thyroid follicles contain what?
Colloid is contained in what in teh thyroid?
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