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What is in-vitro fertilization?
- -fertilization is done outside the womb
- *either in a test tube or petri dish
What percent of US population is infertile?
What percent of couples use IVF?
less than 5%
What circumstance is IVF usually reserved for?
women with blocked or damaged or no fallopian tubes
Where and when was the first IVF baby born?
In 1978 at England
When was IVF first used succesffuly in US?
In 2005, what percent of babies in this country were born through IVF?
Who developed the IVF and won the noble price in 2010 for it?
Robert G. Edwards
Are the eggs that are used for IFV obtained through surgery?
- No, a sonographically-guided needle is used to extract oocytes
- *no hospitalization is needed
What is the procedure called to retrieve oocytes from vagina to use for IVF?
transvaginal oocyte retrieval
What is the cost for IVF?
What are the 2 ways sperm and egg can meet in the dish?
-thousands of sperm in a dish or
-inject one sperm into an egg
What does ovulation mean?
the release of the egg
By what day does a blastocyst emerge in the fallopian tube?
What are 2 things a blastocyst contains?
- *outside of cell
-inner cell mass
What happens during day 7-10 inside womens womb?
- blastocyst implants on the precursor of placenta
- *uterine wall
During gastrulation waht happens?
- embryonic tissues form distinct layers
- *ectoderm,mesoderm, endoderm
What are embryonic stem cells?Where do they derive from?
it is the inner cell mass of the blastocyst
What do undifferetiated embryionic stem cells do??
- they can be induced to differentiate into specific types of cells
- *they can beome liver,muscle, or whichever cell
- differentiation potential of cell
- *potential to differentiate into different cell types
-stem cells that can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cells
-they can become any type of cell they want
How are totipotent stem cells made?
by fusing an egg and sperm
Pluripotent stem cells (2)
-descendants of totipotent cells
-can differentiate into nearly all cells
Where do the stem cells of a pluripotent come from?
any of the 3 germ layers
Multipotent stem cells
can differentiate into a number of closely related family of cells
Oligopotent stem cells
stem cells can differentiate into a few cells
- produces one cell type but can self renew
- *can undergo mitosis
Do adult humans possess stem cells?
Adult stem cell treatments AND treating leukemia and blood cancer
stem cell treatments have been used to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants
Are all cells differentiated surrounded by the saem type of cells?
no, for some strange reason there are neighboring cells that are not fully differentiated
What is plasticity of adult stem cells?
under appropriate culture conditions, cells can be induced to form other cell types
*liver cell to a muscle cell
What were John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka awarded the nobel prize for?
for discovery that mature cells can be transformed into stem cells
What did John B. Gurdon do?
demosntrated that the nucleus from a differentiated frog intestinal epithelial cell was capable of generating a fully functional tadpole upon transplantation to an enucleated egg
What did Yamanaka do?
found that a small set of trasncription factors was sufficient to revert a differentiated cell to a pluripotent state
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