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  1. What is in-vitro fertilization?
    • -fertilization is done outside the womb
    • *either in a test tube or petri dish
  2. What percent of US population is infertile?
    10 percent
  3. What percent of couples use IVF?
    less than 5%
  4. What circumstance is IVF usually reserved for?
    women with blocked or damaged or no fallopian tubes
  5. Where and when was the first IVF baby born?
    In 1978 at England
  6. When was IVF first used succesffuly in US?
  7. In 2005, what percent of babies in this country were born through IVF?
    1 percent
  8. Who developed the IVF and won the noble price in 2010 for it?
    Robert G. Edwards
  9. Are the eggs that are used for IFV obtained through surgery?
    • No, a sonographically-guided needle is used to extract oocytes
    • *no hospitalization is needed
  10. What is the procedure called to retrieve oocytes from vagina to use for IVF?
    transvaginal oocyte retrieval
  11. What is the cost for IVF?
  12. What are the 2 ways sperm and egg can meet in the dish?
    -thousands of sperm in a dish or

    -inject one sperm into an egg
  13. What does ovulation mean?
    the release of the egg

  14. By what day does a blastocyst emerge in the fallopian tube?
    day 6
  15. What are 2 things a blastocyst contains?
    • -trophoblast
    • *outside of cell

    -inner cell mass
  16. What happens during day 7-10 inside womens womb?
    • blastocyst implants on theĀ precursorĀ of placenta
    • *uterine wall
  17. During gastrulation waht happens?
    • embryonic tissues form distinct layers
    • *ectoderm,mesoderm, endoderm
  18. What are embryonic stem cells?Where do they derive from?
    it is the inner cell mass of the blastocyst
  19. What do undifferetiated embryionic stem cells do??
    • they can be induced to differentiate into specific types of cells
    • *they can beome liver,muscle, or whichever cell
  20. Potency
    • differentiation potential of cell
    • *potential to differentiate into different cell types
  21. Totipotent (3)

    -stem cells that can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cells

    -they can become any type of cell they want
  22. How are totipotent stem cells made?
    by fusing an egg and sperm
  23. Pluripotent stem cells (2)
    -descendants of totipotent cells

    -can differentiate into nearly all cells
  24. Where do the stem cells of a pluripotent come from?
    any of the 3 germ layers
  25. Multipotent stem cells
    can differentiate into a number of closely related family of cells
  26. Oligopotent stem cells
    stem cells can differentiate into a few cells
  27. Unipotent cells
    • produces one cell type but can self renew
    • *can undergo mitosis
  28. Do adult humans possess stem cells?
  29. Adult stem cell treatments AND treating leukemia and blood cancer
    stem cell treatments have been used to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants
  30. Are all cells differentiated surrounded by the saem type of cells?
    no, for some strange reason there are neighboring cells that are not fully differentiated
  31. What is plasticity of adult stem cells?
    under appropriate culture conditions, cells can be induced to form other cell types

    *liver cell to a muscle cell
  32. What were John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka awarded the nobel prize for?
    for discovery that mature cells can be transformed into stem cells
  33. What did John B. Gurdon do?
    demosntrated that the nucleus from a differentiated frog intestinal epithelial cell was capable of generating a fully functional tadpole upon transplantation to an enucleated egg
  34. What did Yamanaka do?
    found that a small set of trasncription factors was sufficient to revert a differentiated cell to a pluripotent state
Card Set:
2013-04-01 22:22:40

stem cells
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