BIOL 404- Growth 5

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kyleannkelsey
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210788
Filename:
BIOL 404- Growth 5
Updated:
2013-04-06 13:40:48
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BIOL 404 Growth
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BIOL 404- Growth 5
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  1. Hormones involved in bone formation:
    • Insulin
    • IGF-1
    • Estrogen
    • Testosterone
    • Calcitonin
    • GH
  2. Hormones involved in Reabsorption of bone are:
    • Parathyroid hormones
    • Thyroid hormones
    • Cortisol
  3. Parathyroid hormone, Cortisol and Thyroid hormones all play what role in bone development how?
    reabsoption
  4. GH, Insulin, IGF-1, Testosterone, Estrogen, Calcitonin are involved in bone development in what way?
    formation
  5. Where are the parathyroid glands located?
    adjacent to the thyroid gland
  6. The parathyroid glands are smaller or larger than the thyroid gland?
    smaller
  7. How many parathyroid glands does each person have?
    4 glands
  8. What do the parathyroid glands secrete?
    parathormone and parathyrin
  9. Parathormone and parathyrin are produced by what glands?
    parathyroid glands
  10. PTH stands for
    parathyrin
  11. the abbreviation for parathyrin is:
    PTH
  12. Wht is parathyrin or parathyromone secreted?
    decrease in Ca conc.
  13. A decrease in ca concentration causes what glandular reponse?
    release of parathyrin ot parathyormone
  14. What are the actions of PTH?
    • reabsorption fo bone
    • formation of Vit. D
    • renal tubular absorption of Ca
    • decreased excretion of Ca
    • decreased reabsorption of K
  15. What hormone causes:
    Reabsorption of bone
    Renal tubular absorption of Ca
    formation of Vit. D
    deceased excretion fo Ca
    decreased reabsorption of K?
    PTH
  16. What do osteoblasts do?
    build bone
  17. What bone cells build bone?
    Osteoblasts
  18. What are osteocytes?
    osteoblasts within bone matrix
  19. What are osteoblast that are trapped inbone matrix called?
    Osteocytes
  20. Osteoclasts do what?
    break down bone
  21. Which bone cell breaks down bone?
    Osteoclasts
  22. Osteoclasts are stimulated by what hormone?
    cortisol
  23. Cortisol has what stimulus on bone cells?
    It stiulates Osteoclasts to break down bone
  24. If Calcium farises above homeostatic levels what gland and hormone corrects this imbalance?
    Thyroid gland releases Calcitonin
  25. When Ca falls below homeostatic set points what gland and hormone return them to normal levels?
    Prathyroid gland and PTH
  26. PTH has what effect on blood calcium levels?
    raises them
  27. Calcitonin has what effect on blood Ca levels?
    lowers them
  28. PTH and Calcitonin both regulate the reabsorption, uptake and use of Ca in what three major organ systems?
    intestines, bones, Kidneys
  29. What re the action of Parathormone?
    • Increased Ca uptake in the intestines
    • in creased Osteoclast activity
    • Increased Vit. D formation
    • Increased Ca reabsorption in the kidneys
  30. What is Activated 1,25 (OH)2D3?
    steroid hormone that causes GI cells to express genes to increase Ca uptake
  31. Teh end product of Activated 1,25 (OH)2D3 is to:
    increase intestinal uptake of Ca
  32. When does bone growth cease?
    Fusing of epiphyseal growth plates
  33. What are the major environmental factors effecting growth?
    Disease and nutrition
  34. Irreversible stunting of growth can be caused by what?
    malnutrition in utero
  35. IGF-1 is stimulated by what?
    GH
  36. IGF-1 is primarily produced where?
    The liver
  37. What are the effector sites for Ca homeostasis?
    bone, Gi and kidneys
  38. What is measured to determine Ca homeostasis?
    Ca plasma levels
  39. what two things regulate Ca absorptiona dn reabsorption?
    PTH and Vit. D
  40. PTH and Vit. D regulate what?
    Ca absorptiona dn reabsorption

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