Bio171L P3:Respiratory System Anatomy

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dg527
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210804
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Bio171L P3:Respiratory System Anatomy
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2013-04-01 20:11:11
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Bio171L P3 Respiratory System Anatomy
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Bio171L P3:Respiratory System Anatomy
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  1. What is the primary function of the respiratory system?
    Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
  2. What is the use of inhalation?
    Used for cellular respiration, or the breakdown of nutrients for use at the cellular level.
  3. Describe Exhalation.
    Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of this break down and is eliminated as waste when the organism breaths out.
  4. What are secondary functions of the respiratory system?
    • Phonation-talking
    • Body temperature regulation-dog panting
    • pH balance- hold breath(hold in carbon dioxide)
    • Sense of smell
  5. What structures are in the upper respiratory tract?
    • Nares (nostrils)
    • Nasal Passages
    • Sinuses
    • Pharynx (throat)
    • Larynx (voice box)
    • Trachea
  6. What structures are in the lower respiratory tract?
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveolar ducts
    • Alveoli
    • Diaphragm
  7. Nares
    1. Housed in the nose and the beginning of the nasal passages.
  8. Nasal Passages
    • The routes which inspired air takes between the nares and the pharynx
    • Divided into left and right halves by the Nasal Septum and separated from the mouth by the hard and soft palates
  9. Nasal Turbinates
    Bones found in the nasal passages covered with nasal mucosal membranes to form the nasal conchae
  10. Nasal Conchae
    • House the receptors for the sense of smell
    • -----Olfactory sensory receptors are chemical transducers which when triggered send a signal to cranial nerve I/olfactory nerve and than to the olfactory tracts and bulbs in the cerebrum
    • Increases the surface area in the nasal passages for the conditioning of air by humidifying and warming it before it enters the lower parts of the respiratory tract
    • Filter the dust and pollen from the air
  11. Sinuses
    • Outpocketing of the nasal passageways
    • Name of the skull bone which houses them
    • Humans have frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, and ethmoid sinuses
    • We will identify the frontal sinuses by studying the bisection of the cat
  12. Pharynx
    • Common passageway for the respiratory and digestive systems
    • Divided into three sections
  13. What are the three sections of the pharynx
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngeopharynx
  14. Nasopharynx
    The respiratory passageway dorsal to the soft palate.
  15. Oropharynx
    The respiratory passageway ventral to the soft palate.
  16. Laryngeopharynx
    The common passageways cranial to the larynx, leads to the trachea and the esophagus.
  17. Larynx
    • Short tube connecting to the pharynx and trachea which houses the vocal chords and is supported by the hyoid bone
    • Made up of four types of cartilage
  18. What four types of cartilage are in the larynx
    • Epiglottis
    • Arytenoid Cartilage
    • Thyroid Cartilage
    • Cricoid Cartilage
  19. Epiglottis
    • Leaf shaped cartilage which covers the larynx during swallowing
    • Most cranial cartilage of the larynx
  20. Arytenoid Cartilage
    • Paired cartilage which holds the vocal chords or vocal folds
    • Pyramid shaped cartilage found on the dorsal side of the larynx cranial to the cricoid cartilage
  21. Thyroid Cartilage
    • Most obvious, shield shaped, ventrally positioned cartilage
    • A.K.A. the Adam's Apple
  22. Cricoid Cartilage
    Ring shaped and found caudal to the thyroid cartilage
  23. Trachea
    • Short, wide tube that extends from the larynx to the bifurcation of the trachea which leads into the two lungs
    • Contains C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
    • Made of cartilage not muscle like the esophagus has
    • Just below the larynx and overlying the trachea laterally are the thyroid glands
  24. What system are the thyroid glands apart of?
    Endocrine
  25. What are the functions of the thyroid glands?
    Regulates your metabolism
  26. Bronchus
    • One of the two tubes off of the bifurcated trachea, leads to the right or left lung
    • Thymus gland overlays this area
  27. Thymus Gland
    • Large in the young and gradually decreases in size as the animal ages
    • Belongs to Endocrine System
    • Function: Make T and B cells
  28. Lungs
    • The organs of respiration housed in the thoracic cavity
    • The lungs are lobed, because of the heart the left lung(3) has one less lobe then the right lung(4)
  29. What are the lung lobes
    • Cranial
    • Medial
    • Caudal
    • Accessory - only in the right lung
  30. Hilus
    Notch in the middle portion of the lung where air, blood, lymph, and nerves enter and leave the lung
  31. Bronchial Tree
    • The passageway that divides off the bronchus contained within the lungs, leading to the alveoli
    • The passageway divides into smaller and smaller tubes much like the branches of a tree
  32. Alveoli
    • The functional portion of the lung, where the oxygen and carbon dioxide are exhaled
    • Tiny, thin wall sacs surrounded by capillaries
  33. Diaphragm
    • Large bell shaped muscle which separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
    • Aids in breathing by increasing the size of the thoracic cavity during inhalation (along with the external intercostals) and decreasing the size of the thoracic cavity during exhalation (along with the internal intercostals)

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