Essay Three: 1815-1850

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Essay Three: 1815-1850
2013-04-02 20:14:38
HON 122

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  1. Reform: Britain
    • 1815: Aristocrats held poweràTories and Whigsà Tories take overà Corn Lawà Peterloo Massacre
  2. Reform:
    • Louis XVIII instituted reformà ultraroyalists and liberalsà Charles X
  3. Reform:
    Austrian domination
  4. Reform: Spain
    • Ferdinand VIIà reform, such as Cortesà reneged and persecuted them
  5. Reform: Austria
    • Metternich and Germanic Confederation
  6. Reform:
    • King Frederick William III and reformà grew reactionaryà Burschenschaftenà Metternich and the Karlsbad Decrees of 1819
  7. Reform: Russia
    • Alexander I made reforms until Napoleon’s defeatà reactionaryà death led to Constantine and Nicholas I, whose revolt against him led to reactionary
  8. Revolution of 1848: Britain
    • Stable as Whigs issued Reform Act of 1832 and Poor Law and repealed Corn Law
  9. Revolution of 1848: France
    • Charles Xà July Ordinances à July Revolutionà he fled and was replaced by Louis-Philippeà % between upper and lower class and formation of parties of Movement and Resistanceà depression led to radicals taking overà Louis-Philippe fled and moderates took overà Louis Napoleon
  10. Revolution of 1848: Italy
    • Italian states and Guiseppe Mazzini
  11. Revolution of 1848: Austria
    • Nationalities pushà Hungary has own legislature and armyà Czechs want sameà Gen. Windischgratz crushes themà Francis Joseph, with help of Russian army, brings Hungary back under his power
  12. Revolution of 1848: Germanic States
    • Frederick William IV reformsà Frankfurt Assemblyà fail
  13. Unification (Part Two of Essay Three 1850): Britain
    • Stable Victorian era as real wages increased and the conditions of the working class were better
    • Henry John Temple had no preferenceà Disraeli and the Reform Act of 1867 and the Redistribution Act (secret ballot and stuff)
  14. Unification (Part Two of Essay Three 1850): France
    Louis Napoleon
  15. Unification (Part Two of Essay Three 1850): Italy
    • Focus on Piedmont, defeated by the Austrians; Cavourà Italian War
    • Garibaldi in Southern Italyà Prussian completed unification for them
  16. Austria-Hungary
    • Habsburg freed serfs and established centralized autocracy
    • Alex von Bach= centralization of control by subordinating local privileges, with Hungary being subjected to this
    • Ausgleich of 1867à free Hungary
  17. Russia
    • Serfs were freed
    • Alex II created zemstvosà people wanted that to rule onlyà populism by Alex Herzen
  18. Germany
    • Looked to Austria and Prussia for guidanceà Zollverienà constitution that led to power in hands of rising middle classà death of Fred IVà William I and Bismarck