Psych7: Attention and Memory

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Psych7: Attention and Memory
2013-04-02 22:56:02
Psychology Attention Memory

Chapter 7
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  1. memory
    the nervous system' capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge
  2. Anne Treisman
    • theory of attention and recognition:
    •    we automatically identify "primitive" features (color, shape, orientation, movement, etc)
    • separate systems analyze objects' difference visual features
    • visual search tasks (feature search tasks): look at objects searching for targets that differ from the others in only one feature. other objects are distractors
    • color, movement, orientation, size

    • serial: looking at stimuli one at a time
    • effortful: takes longer and requires more attention
    • conjunction task: the stimulus you are looking for is made up of two simple features
  3. parallel processing
    systems all process information at the same time, and we can attend selectively to one feature by effectively blocking the further processing of the others
  4. cocktail party phenomenon
    • E.C. Cherry
    • focus on one conversation at a party, but in hearing your name or gossip, your attention can quickly change direction
  5. shadowing
    • participant wears headphones and focuses on the sound on one side, though sounds come to both sides
    • names might be noticed, but the rest goes unnoticed.
  6. filter theory
    • Donald Broadbent
    • people filter information and only let in the most important
  7. change blindness
    we are often "blind" to large changes in our environments because we cannot attend to everything in a vast array of visual information available

    (change blindness blindness: people's unawareness that they often do not notice apparently obvious changes in their environments)
  8. stages of memory
    (information processing model)
    • encoding: processing of information so that it can be stored (into a neural code)
    • storage: retention of encoded representations over time that correspond to some change in the nervous system that registers the event (at least 3 storage systems)
    • retrieval: act of recalling or remembering stored information to use it
  9. modal memory model
    • Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
    • 3 stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short term memory, and long-term memory

    • sensory memory: memory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form
    • short-term memory: a limited-capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period
    • working memory/immediate memory: an active system that keeps different types of information available for current use
  10. chunking
    organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember
  11. Working Memory
    • central executive: presides over actions in the phonological loop
    • phonological loop: encodes auditory information and is active when someone tries remembering words by speaking them, reading them, or repeating them
    • visuospacial sketchpad: processes visual information, such as objects' features and where they are located
    • episodic buffer: holds temporary information about oneself
  12. long-term memory
    relatively permanent storage of information
  13. serial position effect
    primacy effect: better memory people havefor items presented at the beginning of the list

    recency effect: refers to people's better memory for the most recent items, the items at the end of the list.
  14. overlearning
    keep rehearsing the material you already know
  15. distributed practice
    material studied in multiple sessions over time
  16. massed practice
    (cramming) material studied in a brief period
  17. implicit memory
    the system underlying unconscious memories

    includes procedural/motor memory
  18. explicit memories
    the process involved when people remember specific information
  19. declarative memory
    the cognitive information received from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared (consciously brought to mind)
  20. episodic memory
    memory for one's personal past experiences

    ex. about an old birthday party..
  21. semantic memory
    memory for knowledge about the world

    ex. capitals of states we've never visited...
  22. repetition priming
    improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has been experienced previously
  23. procedural/motor memory
    a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits

    ex. riding a bike..
  24. prospective memory
    remembering to do something at some time in the future
  25. mental representation
    certain features or feelings associated with the object/thing in question 

    memories are stored representations
  26. schema
    a hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process, and use information
  27. network of associations
    the web of related things (like the firetruck)

    nodes: each unit of information in the network (red, truck, ambulance, etc.)

    spreading activation: idea that activating one node will trigger others to be activated as well
  28. retrieval cue
    anything that helps a person (or other animal) recall information from memory

    ex. sticky notes to get groceries.. etc.
  29. encoding specificity principle
    any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience

    context dependent memory: location, scent, odors, background music, etc.

    state dependent memory: high, sober, drunk, etc.
  30. equipotentiality
    • Karl Lashley
    • idea that memory is distributed throughout the brain rather than confined to any specific location (partially right)

    truth: stored in multiple regions of the brain and linked through memory circuits (Donald Hebb)
  31. brain regions associated with memory:
    prefrontal cortex
    temporal lobe
    • prefrontal cortex: working memory
    • hippocampus: spatial memory
    • temporal lobe: declarative memory
    •          medial section: important for this memory
    • cerebellum: motor action learning and memory
    • amygdala: fear learning
  32. anterograde amnesia
    inability to store new explicit memories

    due to damage to the hippocampus
  33. consolidation
    a hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory into long-term memory
  34. reconsolidation
    neural processes involved when memories are recalled then stored again for later retreival
  35. spatial memory
    memory for the physical environment, it includes things such as location of objects, direction, and cognitive maps
  36. memory modulators
    neurons that modulate, or modify memory storage

    memory involves alterations in connections across synapses
  37. post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    a mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma
  38. forgetting
    the inability to retrieve memory from long-term storage
  39. seven sins of memory
    • (Daniel Schacter)
    • 1. transience (forgetting): reduced memory over time
    • 2. absentmindedness (forgetting): reduced memroy due to failing to pay attention
    • 3. blocking (forgetting): inability to remember needed information
    • 4. misattribution (distortion): assigning a memory to the wrong source
    • 5. suggestibility (distortion): altering a  memory because of misleading information
    • 6. bias (distortion): influence of current knowledge on our past events
    • 7. persistence (undesirable): the resurgence of unwanted or disturbing memories that we would like to forget
  40. transience
    the pattern of forgetting over time
  41. proactive interference
    when prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information

    ex. new locker number to replace the old one
  42. retroactive interference
    when new information inhibits the ability to remember old information

    ex. finally remember the new locker, and forget the old
  43. blocking
    the temporary inability to remember something that is known
  44. absentmindedness
    the inattentive or shallow encoding of events
  45. amnesia
    deficits in long-term memory that result from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma
  46. retrograde amnesia
    the condition in which people lose past memories, such as memories for events, facts, people, or even personal information
  47. anterograde amnesia
    an inability to form new memories
  48. Korsakoff's syndrome
    memory disturbance linked to chronic alcoholism
  49. flashbulb memories
    vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, and emotionally arousing event
  50. von Restorff effect
    a distinctive event might simply be recalled more easily than trivial events, however inaccurate the result
  51. source misattribution
    memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory
  52. cryptomnesia
    a type of misattribution that occurs when a person thinks he or she has come up with a new idea, yet has only retrieved a stored idea and failed to attribute the idea to its proper source
  53. suggestibility
    the development of biased memories when people are provided with misleading information
  54. source amnesia
    a type of amnesia that occurs when a person shows memory for an event but cannot remember where he or she encountered the information
  55. confabulation
    the false recollection of episodic memory
  56. Capgras syndrome
    patients delusionally believe their family members are imposters, and they cannot be convinced otherwise
  57. memory bias
    the changing of memories over time in ways consistent with prior beliefs
  58. mnemonics
    strategies for improving memory