Psych unit 3

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Psych unit 3
2013-04-02 00:20:48

ch 11-14
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  1. Arnett’s Theory
  2. Emerging adulthood – the period from late teens to the early twenties
    when individs explore options prior to committing to adult roles.
  3. B cells/t cells
  4. B cells – produce
    • antibodies to fight off external threats
    • T cells – defend against
    • internal threats such as transplanted organs, cancer cells, viruses. Decline
    • in # and efficiency w/ age.
  5. Egocentrism
    • Child tendency to look at things
    • from his/er own perspective

    • May create frustration in
    • communication

    Piaget three-mountain task
  6. Emerging Adult developmental Areas
    New stage proposed by Jeffrey Arnett  covers ages 17-22 or even to 29

    Experiment with adult options

    • Must address tasks such as academic, friendship, conduct, work and
    • romance

    • Parts of brain governing impulse control, decision-making not yet fully
    • mature
  7. Erikson’s theory
  8. psychosocial theory:
    • 1 trust vs. mistrust
    • 2 autonomy vs. shame/doubt
    • 3 initiative vs. guilt
    • 4 identity vs. role confusion
    • 5 intimacy vs. role confusion
    • 6 intimacy vs. isolation
    • 7 generatively vs. stagnation
    • 8 integrity vs. dispair
  9. (devel influenced by common cultural demands and internal drives. each state
    requires solution of crisis, healthy devel = ratio of =/- experiences).
  10. Internal/external locus of control
  11. Internal locus of control – belief ab the cause of events – taking
  12. James Marcia’s theory
    • Marcia’s theory of identity achievement

    • identity achievement – the identity
    • status achieved by a person who has been through a crisis and reached a
    • commitment to ideological or occupational goals.

    • Moratorium – the identity status
    • of a person who is in a crisis but who has made no commitment.

    • Forclosure – commitment, no
    • crisis.

    Identity diffusion – no crisis, no commitment
  13. Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning Stages
    post formal thought, beyond piaget

    • Later thinking reflects thinking sills that are
    • more relative and reflect complex thought
  14. Levinson’s Theory
    • All the roles an individual
    • occupies, all his or her relationships, and the conflicts and balance that
    • exist among them.

    Each period of life presents adults with new developmental challenges

    • Like Erikson, he regards formation of an intimate relationship with
    • another adult as a central developmental task of early adulthood.
  15. Major hormones
    • Gonadotrophic hormones –
    • responsible for development of sex organs
  16. Mate Selection Theories
    Mating a selective process to insure survival of the species.
  17. Piaget and adolescence
    • Older children generally do
    • better on complex reasoning tasks.

    • Formal Operational reasoning
    • enables teens to understand metaphors.

    • Influenced how teens make
    • decisions. Nearly 3/5 of 12th graders did not show future
    • orientation thinking.

    • Formal operational thinking is
    • not used on every problem.

    • Education levels influence the
    • use of formal operational thought.
  18. Pituitary gland
    • Master gland – triggers hormone
    • release from other glands

    • Gonadotrophic hormones –
    • responsible for development of sex organs
  19. Primary Aging
    senescence – basic underlying inevitable aging process. Grey hair, ect.
  20. Response inhibition
  21. the suppression of actions that are inappropriate in a given context
    and that interfere with goal-driven behavior
  22. Secondary Aging
  23. product of env influences, health, habits, ect
  24. STD’s
    • Bacterial – Chlamydia, Gonorrhea – long term damage to reproductive sys.
    • Syphilis – can lead to serious mental disorders/death.

    Viral – Genital herpes, Gentital warts – caused by hpv. Hiv/aids
  25. Sternberg’s Love Theory
    love has 3 key components

    Intimacy – feelings that promote closeness and connectedness

    • Passion – feeling of intense longing for union with the other
    • person, including sexual union

    Commitment to a particular other – over a long period of time
  26. VO2 max
    • Heart/lungs, Max oxygen uptake (VO2
    • max) – reflects the ability of the body to take in& transport oxygen to
    • body organs. Systematic decline w/ age. Aerobic exrcise can improve it at
    • nearly any age.
  27. Validating couples
    Have disagreements but rarely let them escalate

    Partners express mutual respect and listen to each other
  28. Volatile couples
    Squabble a lot, don’t listen BUT

    More positive than negative with high levels of laughter and affection
  29. Avoidant couples
    Conflict minimizers; agree to disagree – devitalizing
  30. Donald Super’s Model

    Several stages of career development
    Growth stage—learn about one’s abilities

    Exploratory stage—decide on job or career

    Establishment stage—early steps on the career ladder

    • Maintenance stage—ends at retirement but may
    • need to learn new skills on the job