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What are fruit?
A part of the plant that contains seed. (reproductive)
Name types of fruit.
- Stone fruits
- Berry fruits
- Citrus fruits
- Tropical Fruits
- Exotic Fruits
What happpens when fruit is cooked?
The cell walls soften and break down
What can be lost when fruit is cooked?
What are the main vitamins that are effected by cooking?
How to reduce vitamin loss.
- Eat raw
- Leave whole if soaking fruit
- Dont cook at high tempratures
- Dont expose to sunlight
- Dont leave cut surface exposed to air
- Dont refrigerate for too long
What is the role of enzymes in fruit?
For maturing and ripening
What does enzymes change in the fruit?
- Increase the water content
- Start conversion of starch into sugar
- Change in colour
- Conversion of pectin to peptin acid
- Loss of flavour
What is pectin?
- I occurs naturally in fruit and is a complex carbohydrate.
- It is the natural 'setting agent' in jams etc.
What are some forms of fruit preservation?
- replacing water with sugar
What is functional properties?
The particular outcome when the physical and chemical properties of food interact with different food perperation and processing techniqies.
What does FSANZ stand for?
Food standards Australia New Zealand
What is the difference between food poisoning and food spoilage?
- Food poisoning results in you becoming ill from contamination, or a toxin.
- Food spoilage is the deterioration in the physical and or chemical properties in food. could be due to high/low temperatures,bruising, broken pakaging ect.
- With food poisoning the food may still taste ok but with food spoilage the food is often smelly, discoloured ect.
What are high risk foods?
Food in which food-poisoning bacteria can gow. they are usually high in protein, carbohydrates and are low in acid.
How do you stop enzymic browning?
- Exclusion of air- put in water
- Acidic condition- add lemon juice/ vinegar
- Kill the enzymes- dip the fruit/veg in boiling water for 1-2 min, drain and rinse in cold water
- Chemical- commercial vit c (ascorbic acid) solution
What is the nutritional composition of meat?
- It is a complete protein-contain all the essential amino acids.
- Good source of iron
What is gelatinisation?
The process where, starch absorbs liquid in the presence of adequate heat, thicking the product.
What is dextrinisation?
The process by which starch is partilly changed by heat. eg crust of bread and cakes
What is the different type of aeration of baked cereals?
- Physical- whisking, rubbing in, sifting, beating, steam
- Chemical- baking powder, bi-carb, cream of tartar
- Biological- yeast
What do vegetarians need to do to get the same nutritional value as meat?
Need to eat a variety of legumes, nuts and seeds
Functions of eggs.
- Raising agent: incorporate air into mixture (cakes, choux pastry, souffle)
- Thinkening agent: providing a creamy, smooth texture (custard, sauces)
- Binding agent: hold ingerdients together (meat loaves, croquettes)
- Emulifying/stabilising agent: stabilise oil and vinegar together (mayonnaise, salad dressings)
- Enriching agent: enrich mixture (cakes, beverages)
- Glazing: provide a shiny brown appearance for baked products (baked products, pastries)
- Clarifying: Mixing a cloudy hot liquid with beaten eggwhite will result in the unwanted particles being entrapped in coagulated eggwhite. (soups, stocks)
- Garnishing: provide colour ans shape (salads, canapes)
- Setting: coagulate upon heating and set the filling (quiches, custard tarts)
- Coating: help coating such as breadcrumbs to stick to food (schnitzles, cutlets)
- Stabilising: eggwhite coats sugar crystals or air bubbles, stopping either large sugar crystal formation or large crystal formation. (confectionery, ice-cream, sorbets)
What is being lactose intolerance mean?
- It occurs when an individual has difficulty digesting lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk. in someone who is lactose intolerant, the body produces insufficent lactase, the enzyme, the enzyme that braks lactose into glucose and galactose
- abodminal cramps
- Things to avoid:
- drinking milk
- but they can eat cheese and yoghurt
Types of cheese.
- Fresh cheese: Ricotta
- Unripened stretch-curd cheese: Boccoini
- Soft cheese: Camenbert
- Blue cheese:
- Semi-firm cheeses: Chetter
- Firm or hard cheeses: Pecorine
- Processed cheese: Cheese slices
- Goats milk:
- Other cheese: flavoured cheese