Molecular Genetics Terms
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biomolecules that transfer genetic information from existing cells to new cells
RNA, what does it stand for and where is it mainly found?
- Ribonucleic Acid
DNA, what does it stand for and where is it mainly found?
- deoxyribonucleic acids
the repeating structural unit (single monomer) of DNA
What are the 3 main components of a nuceotide?
- Heterocyclic base
What is the nucleic acid backbone made of?
A phosphate sugar chain
How many chromosomes does a human cell contain?
46 (23 pairs)
In a chromosome, DNA is tightly coiled around a ________
histone (small proteins)
an individual section of a chromosomal DNA molecule that is the fundamental unit of heredity
each gene directs the synthesis of a specific ______
sum of all genetic material in a cell (genetic blueprint)
the process by which an exact copy of a DNA molecule is produced
a replication process that produces DNA molecules containing one strand from the parent and a new strand that is complementary to the parent strand
the point where the DNA double helix unwinds during replication of the molecule
a fragment of DNA produced during replication when a strand grows away from the replication fork. These fragments occur on the lagging strand of DNA
a change that results in an incorrect base sequence on DNA
a chemical that induces mutations by reacting with DNA
replace mutated gene with normal gene to produce required protein (gene splicing)
- Polymerase Chain Reaction
- mimics the natural process of
- messenger RNA
- carries the genetic information from the DNA to the site of protein synthesis
- ribosomal RNA
- RNA comprising of ~ 60% of the material in ribosomes (ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis)
- rRNA accounts for 80-85% of total
- RNA in cell
- transfer RNA
- RNA that delivers individual amino acid molecules to the site of protein synthesis
Process by which
genetic information stored in DNA is expressed in the structure of synthesized
Process dogma (principle) of molecular biology
the transfer of genetic information from a DNA molecule to a messenger RNA molecule
(carries a code) is converted to an amino acid sequence of a protein
the sequence of codons that will determine which amino acids will be put into a protein
a sequence of 3 nucleotide bases in messenger RNA that will code for a specific amino acid
DNA of an organism that contains genetic material from another organism
The term used for producing/replication/copying a living organism
Which nucleotide bases are purines?
Adenine and guanine (two fused rings)
Which nucleotide bases are pyrimidines?
Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil (these have one ring)
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