Molecular Genetics Terms

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saitclt
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210943
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Molecular Genetics Terms
Updated:
2013-04-04 07:53:01
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SAIT CLT2 BCHM335
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Terms from molecular genetics glossary. Compiled by Cynthia
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  1. biomolecules that transfer genetic information from existing cells to new cells
    Nucleic Acids
  2. RNA, what does it stand for and where is it mainly found?
    • Ribonucleic Acid
    • Cytoplasm
  3. DNA, what does it stand for and where is it mainly found?
    • deoxyribonucleic acids
    • Nucleus
  4. the repeating structural unit (single monomer) of DNA
    nucleotide
  5. What are the 3 main components of a nuceotide?
    • Heterocyclic base
    • Sugar
    • Phosphate
  6. What is the nucleic acid backbone made of?
    A phosphate sugar chain
  7. How many chromosomes does a human cell contain?
    46 (23 pairs)
  8. In a chromosome, DNA is tightly coiled around a ________
    histone (small proteins)
  9. an individual section of a chromosomal DNA molecule that is the fundamental unit of heredity
    gene
  10. each gene directs the synthesis of a specific ______
    protein
  11. sum of all genetic material in a cell (genetic blueprint)
    genome
  12. the process by which an exact copy of a DNA molecule is produced
    replication
  13. a replication process that produces DNA molecules containing one strand from the parent and a new strand that is complementary to the parent strand
    Semiconservative replication
  14. the point where the DNA double helix unwinds during replication of the molecule
    Replication fork
  15. a fragment of DNA produced during replication when a strand grows away from the replication fork. These fragments occur on the lagging strand of DNA
    Okazaki fragment
  16. a change that results in an incorrect base sequence on DNA
    mutation
  17. a chemical that induces mutations by reacting with DNA
    mutagen
  18. replace mutated gene with normal gene to produce required protein (gene splicing)
    gene therapy
  19. PCR
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • mimics the natural process of
    • replication
  20. mRNA
    • messenger RNA
    • carries the genetic information from the DNA to the site of protein synthesis
  21. rRNA
    • ribosomal RNA
    • RNA comprising of  ~ 60% of the material in ribosomes (ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis)
    • rRNA accounts for 80-85% of total
    • RNA in cell
  22. tRNA
    • transfer RNA
    • RNA that delivers individual amino acid molecules to the site of protein synthesis
  23. Process by which
    genetic information stored in DNA is expressed in the structure of synthesized
    proteins
    Process dogma (principle) of molecular biology
  24. the transfer of genetic information from a DNA molecule to a messenger RNA molecule
    Transcription
  25. messenger RNA
    (carries a code) is converted to an amino acid sequence of a protein
    Translation
  26. the sequence of codons that will determine which amino acids will be put into a protein
    sequence
    Genetic code
  27. a sequence of 3 nucleotide bases in messenger RNA that will code for a specific amino acid
    codon
  28. DNA of an organism that contains genetic material from another organism
    Recombinant DNA
  29. The term used for producing/replication/copying a living organism
    cloning
  30. Which nucleotide bases are purines?
    Adenine and guanine (two fused rings)
  31. Which nucleotide bases are pyrimidines?
    Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil (these have one ring)

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