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Who are the two men associated with linguistic bases?
Noam chompsky and BF skinner.
What is knowledge of language
People mostly unconsciously know what is correct or what is not correct.
Because knowledeg of language is mostly ______ the person judging wheter something is correct or not cannot____
We can only ___ a person's linguistic performance and ___ their linguistic understanding
Does performance perfectly reflect our competence? Why?
No, because we produce ungrammatical sentences frequently.
Representing knowledge of a language as a list of all possible grammatical sentences is ________
inconceivable and misses the point.
How many grammatical sentences are in a lnaguage.
the number is infinite.
Define the internal grammar or knowledge of language.
There is a finite system of principles that enables humans to construct and infinite number of sentences.
According to a nativist, what is the way knowledge of language is acquired?
Linguistic Base ----> Initial state of linguistic knowledge -----> Final state of linguistic knowledges
What is the evidence of the initial state of linguistic knowledge?
- Children acquire language along the same time course regardless of enviornmental contition.
- Regardless of the language the process of language acquisition follows similar patterns. (children at first do not produce the subject of the sentence. Ex: go, want juice)
Explain the poverty of the stimulus
- Language input is : partial, full of mistakes, not presentd systematically.
- Children are not taught was is ungrammatical
- children dont make the mistakes we would expect
- there are some mistakes children never make.
- Children never consider linear rules
- Children only use hierarchial rules.
what are two other source of evidence of an initial state of linguistic knowledge existance.
- all human beings have the ability to acquire language and only human beings have the ability to acquire languge.
- Thus, language is part of the bilogical endowment and there is a critical periosd for it to happen.
The development of creole languages supports inborn ability to acquire language
- *pidgin (basic words)
- *creole, Morphemes, elaboarated syntax (kids convert pidgin to crole
What is universal grammer?
- Blueprint underlying an human language
- Languages do not differ from each other infinitely only along certain dimensions.
How much of the adult weight is the human brain at birth?
How long does the frantic pace of the postpartum neural building boom continue? All animals?
- unitl 2 yrs
- No-only humans
how much of the brain develops outside the womb?
At what age is Myalin formed?
What can occur during the early phases of neurodevelopment?
Any area of cortex can support an assortment of cortical representations.
WHat are peaks in the brain called? Valleys? Canyons?
Study neuro anatomy labels.
What connects broca's area and wernicke's area?
In typical adults the planum temporale is
Larger on the left side (it is asymmetrical)
Adults with reading and language difficulty have?
A child with language impairment has a ______ planum temporale?
In neuroimaging of SLI, _____ differences have also been noted. The ________ hypothesis is connected to these findings.
- procedural deficit
In neuroimaging, _______ morphology has been noted where?
- Abnormal gyral
- Broca's Area
With neuroimaging for SLI, _____ is needed.
Describe the Basal ganglia, caudate nucleus and the putamen in the KE family
- Basal Ganglia: Less gray matter in the caudate nuclei, more gray matter in the putamen
- Caudate Nucleus: Speciffically for language, it has learning and memory functions
- Putamen: Reinforcement and incidental learning, rule based learning.
The Ke family pedigree and twin studies provide what for a genetic orgin of SLI?
The evidence, while inconsistent shows what? What is needed?
- Abnormal asymmetry in perisylvian areas, subcortical anomalies, atypical gyral morphology.
- Abnormal gyral morphology has been noted near broca's area.
- Reduplication is needed. Nothing has been perfectly consistent
Children with SLI are neurobiologically....
Describe the EEG
- scalp electrodes
- record surface voltage
- ERP event related potentials (wave forms)-spike
What do children with SLI show on the EEG?
- Greater ERPs when processing difficult semantics.
- ERPS not higher on the left (as would be expected) when processing prepositions, determiners, pronouns
What do ERPs have? Show? Not require?
- Have high temporal resolution (see what is happening
- Show maturational changes
- Don not require overt responses
What did mofese and colleagues do with ERPs?
Leppanen and Colleagues?
- ERP recordings at birth were used to predict later language skills through 5 years of age
- ERP patterns predictive of dyslexia
SLI, Dyslexia, Autism, and williams syndrome all have _____. Because of this _______ may not be a reality and ___________.
- Shared brain abnormalities
- Discrete categories
- The quest to discover one particular neural marker for any given impairment is misguided.
Can knowledge of neurobiology influence treatment?
- Better understanding of the basis of a child's language impairement:
- -More specifically targeted therapy
- - Avoidance of therapy that is ineffective
- -A better ability to prognosticate regarding outcome
- -Identification of markers (earlier commencement of therapy and greater likelihood of an improved outcome)
A biologic understanding of the cause of a child's disability may ________
resolve anxiety and encourage parents to pursue appropriate therapy.
What does Pinker say about memory?
we think in visual and auditory images of abstract propositions.
What does learning a word entail?
- Focus attention
- Listen to sequence of sounds
- Remember sequence of sounds
- Compare the sound sequence and potential meanings to prior knowledge
If there is no match to prior knowledge, you store information about?
- Phonological sequence
- Likely meaning
- Event that co-occurred
- Surrounding spoken words
- Word order
- the role the word might have played (noun, verb, etc)
Is it likely that deficits in attention and memory play a role in language- learning difficulties despite the etiological basis of the problem.?
What is working memory?
The mental processes that allow an individual to simultaneously store and process verbal information.
What is a model?
- Set of assumptions about some concept or system
- The diagrams, illustrations or physical models are not the acutal things
- Describes a type of object or system
- Explains various properties that object or system
- a representation that provides at lease some approximation to the real situation.
Spearman thought that IQ was?
- 7 independent primary abilities
- 120 different abilitites
Baddeley said that working memory had different components? Why?
- considered it to be made up of more than one component.
- Presented because it was obsereved that people could remember (3 chunks of
- information (pictures) and then 3 words= 3 chunks of visual and 3 chunks of
- auditory) Could remember 3 of each better than if they were give 6 simply in
- auditory. Showin that you process visual and auditory differently.
Is memory a single unitary entity?
What is it?
It is capable of what?
- Made up of a series of memories that in optimum conditions work together to serve a wide range of different functions
- Capability to store and then to retrieve information.
Describe the Central Executive
- Everything coming in is a puzzle
- Coordinates selective attention (implications for joint attention)
- Supervisory system
- Controls infromation to the phonological loop, visual sketchpad and episodic buffer.
The episodic buffer allows for storage in
long term memory
Describe the phonological loop
- Stores phonological information
- Auditory verbal information:
- -entered automatically into the phonological store
- Visually presented language:
- - Transformed into phonological code by silent articulation.
Describe the phonological loop, visuospacial sketchpad and central executive in terms of a functional mri
- PHonological loop: two separate locations within the left hemisphere of the brain
- Visuospatial sketchpad: distributed across at least four locations in the right hemisphere
- Central executive: depends on a range of locations within the frontal lobes of the brain.
Describe Cowan's model
- Bottom-up processing
- Top Down processing
- --creates expectations
- --expectations shape what we pay attention to
- --EX- stories.
With LI, Attention and Memory, there is ____.
This means they may need_____
What type of attention
- High degree of overlap between attention deficits and language impairment
- May need longer periods of sustained attention stimulation and repeated stimulation
- It is not just any kind of attention we are talking about, it is self directed attention
When looking at phonological difficulty, it is tested using ____- and ther is typically a breakdown at ___ for not typically developing children
- nonword repetition
- 3+ syllables for
Phonological memory provides???
short term storage for an utterance until speech takes place
What is meant by limited phonological memory?
- Shorter, less complex sentences
- Difficulty with grammatical morphology
- difficulty with comprehension
How is executive functions difficulty assessed?
- using dual tasks
- Competing language processing task (CLPT)
- --Pumpkins are purple (yes/no) (final word)
- Children with LI had 40% recall
- Typically developing children had 60%
Does ones memory fade faster for children with LI?
Complex input leads to?
Almost all child language disorder theories are?
- Prototypical (models)
- Not precise
- Reflect different theoretical orientations
- Reflect specific language disorders
Processing speed and attention are key determiners of ?
cognitive-linguistic development (and difficulty)
What overlaps with attention and processing speed?
What is also related to cognitive-linguistic development (yet researched very little)
What and processing speed are strongly related?
What does processing speed mediate?
- Executive function: have to process to be selective or attend to things
- PHonological memory: Everything you remember goes through short term memory first. Effects how much you can remember
- Working memory capacity: can improve through practice
- Inhibition of attention: the slower your processing, the more inhibited your attention is. Multitasking is made difficult.
Discuss processing speed ans SLI
- Reaction time is slower across tasks
- There is no general factor that slows all cognitive operations
- Slower with just speed of lexical access and integration
- Group research has masked the heterogeneity
What are the 4 parts of attention?
- Alerting: achieving an alert state
- Orienting: Selecting information
- Executive control: resolving conflicting input
- Develomental effects
- Unconscious: pre-attentive, baseline neural state, happens all the time
- Conscious: selected attention
What does chromatin and chormosomes mean?
- Coloful nitrogen
- colorful bodies
When a cell wants to divide the ____ comes together to form _____
How long is the chromatin in each cell?
What is chromotin made of?
DNA that is wound around a protein
Each cell has how many chromosome pairs and how many total. How are they numbered
- 23 Chromosomes pairs (1 from mother, 1 from father)
- 46 in total in each cell of body
- Numbered little to big
Why do cells divide?
- For growth (cells don't grow so they multiply to help us grow)
- For repair ( the large the cell the less efficient it is)
Where is the telopme and the centromere? Why is the human chormosome in the x shape?
- Telomere is at end of chormosome, centromere is in the center.
- They are in the process of reduplication and it is the only time you can see them.
The gene sequence is located on?
- The DNA
- Section of DNA
- Genes contain information on how to create protein ( how to make you as a person)
how do we number genes?
- Start with chromosome # (1-23)
- Begin numbering from cenromere of chromosome
- Numbered according to arm (p or q)
what does 2p34 mean?
- 2nd chromosome
- short arm
- 34 away from centromere
Genes and proteins have the same name, how do you determine which one is being discussed?
Gene is italicized
Genes make ___-
What provides info on how to make the protien? Then what happens
What transfers the code out of the nucleus?
Where does it go and what happens
- RNA recodes (rewrites the code, cleans it, removes the introns and gives code to messenger RNA
- MRNA transfers the code out of the nucleus to the ribosomes
- The ribosomes produce proteins.
What are the two things that protein (made by the ribosomes) can be:
- A) structural (they help form a structure)
- B) Go back to the nucleus to help control the transcription of other genes, called transcritipion factors.
What do transcription factors do and what is an example?
- Regulate transcription
- Control the amount of protein produced by the gene
- FOXP2 is a transcription factor (protein) that is associated with speech and language
How many genes are there per chromosome?
Our genes (_____) influence our structural, chemical, behavioral attributes (_____)
Genes from mom and genes from dad are not identical. the different forms (brands) of a gene are called ____
What is our phenotype the result of?
What is recombination?
Creating a sperm or egg.
- Two sex cells meet and combine
- 4 chromosomes are duplicated and crossover occurs
- the cell then divides into two with 2 pairs of chromoses a piece. Then division happens again to get 4 daughter cells.
Alleles come about through mutation. List mutations
- No effect
- Change in the exon (code) this is missense
- Change when the transcription is supposed to stop this is a nonsnese mutation
- Elimination of one or several genes
Large scale mutations are at the ______ level. They are?
- Loss of a chromosome (monosomy)
- Addition of a chromose (trisomy)
- Translocation(pieces of chromosome break off and reattach. )
If it is genetic....
- It should run in families
- One person=unique trait (phenotype), others in their family = morel likely to have that trait.
- People outside of the family = less likely to have that trait (as a group)
What does it imply when you have a first-degree relative with a speech or language impairment?
- 4 times higher chance for you
- Familial aggregation
What is a proband?
The person who has the trait that is interesting
Can enviornment cause aggregation?
- Studies showing that SLI tends to run in families are suggestive of genetic influence, but they are not watertight, because family members share environments as well as genes.
What does twinning help separate out?
Genetic and enviornmental effects.
Who has higher concordance MZ or DZ?
What is Epistasis?
- How genes interact with other genes
- Polygenic effect (quantitative)- multiple genes creating effect
- Phenotype= addative+dominance+Environment + Interaction
- They do not follow Mendelian patterns
- Their phenotypes typically vary along a normal distribution
The more polygenic....
The more it follows the normal curve.
What is an example of polygenic trait? What is SLI?
- Human Skin Color
- SLI resembles complex genetic disorders, such as asthma and diabetes, which run in families but for which patterns of inheritance do not correspond to any known dominant or recessive pattern.
What kind of statistics are used for a quantitative (polygenic) trait?
What is heritability? Example
- How big of a difference there is in phenotypic correlation between twin who are MZ and DZ
- MZ= r-.70
- DZ= r-.30
- The difference is .40
what is heritability h2
index of the propotion of the phenotype variance across individuals that is attributable to genetic factors.
What is h2 represented by?
doubling the difference. so in the example 80% of the phenotype effect is attributable to genetices
If the concordance rate is higher in MZ then,...
there suggests genetic influence.
For genetics, does it matter how you define SLI?
If you use and IQ/language performance discrepency?
- YES- A LOT
- Higher heritability when you don't use a discrepancy model
Do language and nonverbal development have shared genetic influences?
It appears that the genetic influence is unique before age 3. After that, there is less of a unique genetic contribution.
Genetics measure what?
- the genotypes of large numbers of individuals
- positional cloning
- candidate gene approach
Family studies and twin studies all suggest what?
a genetic influence on SLI, but none of these methods actually looked at any individuals genes.
Describe positional cloning
- Recombination across generations
- Alleles that are close together stay together and those that are far apart, stay far apart
- Looking for the same genes across generations
- Identify what proteins are created by those genes
- An established approach in SLI
Describe candidate genes and what it requires and understanding of
- Requires and understanding of the nature of the phenotype and the genes and their protein products.
- If you know that a problem is caused by a lack of a certain substance (dopamine) then you will look for a gene that creates that substance.
- An emerging approach in SLI
Describe the FoxP2 Gene and SLI
- Family KE
- 37 members
- 15 with LI
- Strong linkage signal in the 7q31 region
- Transcription gene protein called FoxP2
- Base-pair substitution resulting in a missense.
FOXP2 is a _______. It is expressed in ____ and structural imaging found?
- Transcriptional repressor gene
- Expressed in the multiple organs, including the brian
- Structural imaging found abnormalities in the
- -caudate nucleus (memory)
- -putamen (memory)
- Cerebrellum (attention)
- -Temporal cortex (language)
- -Inferior frontal gyrus (language production)-Broca's
- -Motor cortex (speech)
Functional imaging found underactivation and oeractivation of FOXP2 where?
Underactivation: In broca's area, right inferior frontal gyri and putamen
Overactivation: In posterior parietal, occipital, and post-central regions not normally associated with language.
What is teh summary of FOXP2
- Leads to deficits in procedural learning (memory)
- Mutation does not let the FOXP2 protein go back through the nuclear membrane, where it is supposed to reconnect and regulate transcription.
- FOXP2 regulates activities of other genes
Is FOXP2 found in large samples with LI?
- Not found in large twin LI study
- Not a very common cause of LI
- 5 unrelated individuals or families have been found to have LI and FOXP2 abnomalities
What are the genetics of Dyslexia?
- Dyslexia is familial
- 37% of first-degree family members
- 5 times higher rate than the expected rate
What are the Genetics of Autism?
- Risk for autism to siblings of probands with autism is between 2% and 6%
- In twin studies MZ= 60%-90%
Is there a gene for autism?
No consensus regarding any particular gene, but some are promising
Can you help a child if their disorder is genetic?
YES!!! Early intervention is best.
Between 200 and 2010 how much of the US population growth did the hispanic population account for?
From 1980 to 2009 the school age children who did not speak english at home rose from ___ to ____
4.7 million to 11.2 million
What are the two types of Bilinguals?
Simultaneous Bilinguals: Two languages from birth or before 2 years of age.
Sequential Bilinguals: Mastered one language and learned second language after 2 years of age.
What is a sub group of Sequential Bilinguals?
- Early Sequential Bilingualism:
- Home language first (but not mastered)
- Second language with formal schooling
What is the largest and most challenging group of bilinguals?
Early sequential bilinguals.
What is fluency dependent on in early sequential bilinguals?
- Context (How immersed)
- AMount of exposure
- Birth order (younger is exposed more)
- School procedures (monolingual, bilingual, ELL services)
- Social interaction/ Neighborhood
- Parent desires.
For Early sequential bilinguals, L1 is ______ L2 is ______ so it is difficult to _____
- not mastered
- not mastered
- differentiate between a difference and a disorder.
What are the thoughts regarding English only?
- It is argued that there is no support for English-only initiatives and that the English-only movement can have negative consequences on psychosocial development
- intergroup relation
- academic achievement
- psychometric and health-service delivery systems for many american citizens and residents who are not proficient in english
Does bilingualism delay acquistion? cause confusion? lower your intelligence? lower a child's chance for succesS?
How many languages can a typical kid learn simultaneously?
Building on a first language does what for L2
builds on it.
Families need to lead in what?
making decisions regarding whether their children need two languages.
If a child with a language and/or cognitive disorder needs to know two languages...
the focus should be upon helping them learn the two languages. It is not appropriate to recommend that the input be reduced to a single language.
Describe the Processing accounts of SLI with regard to bilingualism
If a child with SLI were to learn two languages, the generalized slowing hypothesis would predict that this child would show delays not only compared to monolingual unaffected age peers in each but also compared to monolingual age peers with SLI
Describe the Linguistic accounts of SLI with regard to bilingualism
Even if a child with SLI was learning two languages, this would not necessarily change their proficiency with respect to those aspects of language that are considered to be clinical markers for monligual children with SLI (meaning general processing does not fit?)
Can bilinguals with SLI acquire grammatical morphology with the same rates and patterns as monolinguals with SLI?
- Applied to simultaneous bilinguals
- Bilinguals master the linguistic rule systems of both languages
- They can keep those systems seperate.
Describe Separate development hypothese
- Bilingual input from birth= acquistion of both languages
- development follows the same patterns and time frame for both languages
- Separate development is assumed
- sequential bilingualism is more interrelated
- L1 guides development of L2
- Learn L2 through filter of L1
- High frequency forms are used correctly- more errors on low frequency forms
- High degree of similarity between two languages= earlier mastery
what is the unified model?
Competition between cues across phonology, semantics, morphosyntax and pragmatics.
With interdependence, languages in contact perspective:
clearly different forms are less likely to be vulnerable to change and differences that are more subtle may be more difficult to tease appart
Describe Vocabulary and Bilingualism
- Word learning for bilinguals is similar to monolinguals if both languages are counted.
- Children may not encode the same items in each of their two languages.
Describe morphosyntax and bilinugalism
- bilinguals have the same MLU in both languages as monolinuals
- morphology in both languages develops as expected.
- Cros linguistic influence can occur with grammer (not ungrammatical, just unusual)
Narrative macrostructure is
- similar across multiple languages with some differences noted
- spanish : less consequences more emotion
- AA: Less plans, topic associating and topic centered.
What is the narrative macrostructure of language impairment of bilinguals.
- Difficulty with perspective talking
- cohesion (pronouns wrong)
- Semantics are similar to monolingual LI patters
- Difficulty processing and learning new words.
IS there a standard for english?
No, but there is a form of English (stnadard american english) that has been promoted to be the representative standard dialect. This is false!! Any english is good english.
Standard american english is defined by who? how many nonstandard dialects in US
- Defined by a particular social and economic group of power.
- ALL ARE GOOD ENGLISH
Dialectical variation is influenced by?
- Geographic region
- racial / ethnic group membership
- social class
code switching happens with...
bi or multi dialectal.
What does dialectal variation complicate?
Discuss the Overrepresentation of wahsington and tomblin.