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uniqueness of Levey & Newman
- identical twins separated at birth
- share similar interests, passions, and mannerisms
- attracted to same type of woman
nature vs. nurture
viewpoint that weighs the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior
suggests that a combination of hereditary and environmental factors influence development
What is the longitudinal method?
Studies the same people repeatedly over time
What is the cross-sectional method of study?
studies the different people of different ages at one point in time.
What is the sequential study method?
studies different people of different ages over time.
What is the number of chromosomes at conception?
What is considered a zygote?
- immediately after conception
- starts out as a microscopic speck
- develops to 100-150 cells within a week
What is considered an embryo?
- week 2 - week 8
- grows 10,000x larger by week 4
- 1/5 of an inch long
- has a beating heart, brain, intestinal tract
- by week 8 it has arms and legs
What is considered a fetus?
- week 8
- begins to respond to touch
- movements can be felt
- hair and face develop
- neurons are produced
- organs begin to function
what can smoking do to pregnancy?
can lead to miscarriage and infant death
what can alcohol do to pregnancy?
- fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) results in below-average intelligence, growth delays and facial deformities
- fetal alcohol effects (FAE) is a condition in which children display some but not all problems of FAS
what can drugs do to pregnancy?
- can result in infant addiction to drug mother used
- newborns suffer painful withdrawal symptoms
- permanent physical and mental impairment
what is Phenylketonuria (PKU)
- child cant produce an enzyme required for normal development
- poisons accumulate in the body, eventually causing mental retardation
- treatable if caught early and put on special diet
- most infants routinely tested
what is Sickle-cell anemia
- 10% African American population has possibility of passing on disease
- causes abnormally shaped red blood cells
- symptoms include episodes of pain, yellowish eyes, stunted growth, and vision problems
what is Tay Sachs
- most often found in Jews of Eastern European ancestry
- usually die by age 3 or 4
- inability to break down fat
what is Down Syndrome
- zygote receives an extra chromosome at conception
- related to mothers age
- women older than 35 and younger than 18 have increased risk
What are teratogens?
enviromental agents such as drugs, chemicals and viruses that produce birth defects
what is DNA
What are genes?
- units that tranmitt genetic information
- "makes up chromosomes"
- Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information
a cheese like white substance found coating the skin of newborn human babies
the hair on the body of a baby that develops white in the uterus, but disappears before/after birth, usually seen on a pre-term baby.
Assists with breast feedingBaby uses face to find the sloping outward oval of a womens breast to find the mini arch
Reflex that protects the neck (whole body startle), and eyes (blinking)
( take the sole of the babys foot and stroke it: toes move out and move upward and back, harmless)
habituation vs. attention
- Habituation: Decreased responding to stimulus after repeated exposure
- Follow w/ eyes
- changes, rate of sucking
- increased heart rate
Lorenz & imprinting
- Lorenz (Animal application for attachment)
- Imprinting: Attachment follows 1st moving object
60-70%,, Has discomfort with stranger, seeks out mother immediately on return
20-25% of babies, child is impassioned of whether the mother comes in or leaves.
10%, Mega upset when mother leaves, when mom returns child begins to hit mother
5%, No consistent pattern of attachment
mother vs. father play activities
- mother: verbal, traditional games
- father: physical, rough & tumble activities
what are the types of parenting?
- uninvolved parenting
- parents:rigid, punitive, strict standards
- child: unsociable, unfriendly, withdrawn
- parents: lax, inconsistent, undemanding
- child: immature, moody, dependent, low self-control
- parents: firm, set goals and limits, uses reasoning, encourages independence
- child: good social skills, likable, self-reliant, independent
- parents: detached emotionally, sees role as only providing food, clothing, and shelter
- child: indifferent, rejecting behavior