psych ch. 9 pt. 1.txt

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Johnemt
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psych ch. 9 pt. 1.txt
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2013-04-02 14:40:37
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psychology chapter 9 pt. 1
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  1. uniqueness of Levey & Newman
    • identical twins separated at birth
    • share similar interests, passions, and mannerisms
    • attracted to same type of woman
  2. nature vs. nurture
    viewpoint that weighs the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior
  3. interactionist approach
    suggests that a combination of hereditary and environmental factors influence development
  4. What is the longitudinal method?
    Studies the same people repeatedly over time
  5. What is the cross-sectional method of study?
    studies the different people of different ages at one point in time.
  6. What is the sequential study method?
    studies different people of different ages over time.
  7. What is the number of chromosomes at conception?
    • 23 pairs
    • 46 chromosomes
  8. What is considered a zygote?
    • immediately after conception
    • starts out as a microscopic speck
    • develops to 100-150 cells within a week
  9. What is considered an embryo?
    • week 2 - week 8
    • grows 10,000x larger by week 4
    • 1/5 of an inch long
    • has a beating heart, brain, intestinal tract
    • by week 8 it has arms and legs
  10. What is considered a fetus?
    • week 8
    • begins to respond to touch
    • movements can be felt
    • hair and face develop
    • neurons are produced
    • organs begin to function
  11. what can smoking do to pregnancy?
    can lead to miscarriage and infant death
  12. what can alcohol do to pregnancy?
    • fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) results in below-average intelligence, growth delays and facial deformities
    • fetal alcohol effects (FAE) is a condition in which children display some but not all problems of FAS
  13. what can drugs do to pregnancy?
    • can result in infant addiction to drug mother used
    • newborns suffer painful withdrawal symptoms
    • permanent physical and mental impairment
  14. what is Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • child can’t produce an enzyme required for normal development
    • poisons accumulate in the body, eventually causing mental retardation
    • treatable if caught early and put on special diet
    • most infants routinely tested
  15. what is Sickle-cell anemia
    • 10% African American population has possibility of passing on disease
    • causes abnormally shaped red blood cells
    • symptoms include episodes of pain, yellowish eyes, stunted growth, and vision problems
  16. what is Tay Sachs
    • most often found in Jews of Eastern European ancestry
    • usually die by age 3 or 4
    • inability to break down fat
  17. what is Down Syndrome
    • zygote receives an extra chromosome at conception
    • related to mother’s age
    • women older than 35 and younger than 18 have increased risk
  18. What are teratogens?
    enviromental agents such as drugs, chemicals and viruses that produce birth defects
  19. what is DNA
    Deoxyribonucleric Acid
  20. What are genes?
    • units that tranmitt genetic information
    • "makes up chromosomes"
    • Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information
  21. Vernix:
    a  cheese like white substance found coating the skin of newborn human babies
  22. Lunago:
    the hair on the body of a baby that develops white in the uterus, but disappears before/after birth, usually seen on a pre-term baby.
  23. Rooting reflex:
    Assists with breast feeding”Baby uses face to find the sloping outward oval of a women’s breast to find the mini arch”
  24. Startle reflex:
    Reflex that protects the neck (whole body startle), and eyes (blinking)
  25. Babinski Reflex
    ( take the sole of the baby’s foot and stroke it: toes move out and move upward and back, harmless)
  26. habituation vs. attention
    • Habituation: Decreased responding to stimulus after repeated exposure
    • Attention:
    • Follow w/ eyes
    • changes, rate of sucking
    • increased heart rate
  27. Lorenz & imprinting
    • Lorenz (Animal application for attachment)
    • Imprinting: Attachment follows 1st moving object
  28. Securely Attached
    60-70%,, Has discomfort with stranger, seeks out mother immediately on return
  29. Avoidant attachment
    20-25% of babies, child is impassioned of whether the mother comes in or leaves.
  30. Ambivalent
     10%, Mega upset when mother leaves, when mom returns child begins to hit mother
  31. Disorganized-disoriented
     5%, No consistent pattern of attachment
  32. mother vs. father play activities
    • mother: verbal, traditional games
    • father: physical, rough & tumble activities
  33. what are the types of parenting?
    • authoritarian,
    • permissive,
    • authoritative,
    • uninvolved parenting
  34. authoritarian
    • parents:rigid, punitive, strict standards
    • child: unsociable, unfriendly, withdrawn
  35. permissive
    • parents: lax, inconsistent, undemanding
    • child: immature, moody, dependent, low self-control
  36. authoritative
    • parents: firm, set goals and limits, uses reasoning, encourages independence
    • child: good social skills, likable, self-reliant, independent
  37. uninvolved
    • parents: detached emotionally, sees role as only providing food, clothing, and shelter
    • child: indifferent, rejecting behavior

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