psych ch. 9 pt. 2.txt

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psych ch. 9 pt. 2.txt
2013-04-02 14:41:28
psych pt

psych ch. 9 pt. 2.txt
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  1. Erikson's trust vs mistrust (birth to 18 months):
    stage where infant develop feelings of trust or a lack of trust
  2. Erikson's utonomy vs shame & doubt (18 months to 3 years):
    toddlers develop independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom is encouraged, or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and over protected
  3. Eriksons' initiative vs guilt (3-6 years):
    children experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action
  4. Erikson's industry vs inferiority (6-12 years):
    children may develop positive social interactions with others or may feel inadequate and become less sociable
  5. Piaget's sensorimotor (birth-2 years):
    development of object permanence, development of motor skills, little or no capacity for symbolic representation
  6. Piaget's preoperational stage (2-7 years):
    development of language and symbolic thinking, energetic thinking
  7. Piaget's concrete operational (7-12 years):
    development of conservation, mastery of concept of reversibility
  8. Piaget's formal operational stage (12 years-adulthood):
    abstract thought
  9. principle of conservation:
    the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.
  10. object permanence:
    the awareness that objects-and people-continue to exist even if they’re out of sight
  11. egocentric thought:
    child sees world only from their own point of view
  12. reversibility:
    principle of conservation is also true in the reverse (ex. if x=y, then y=x)
  13. Vygotsky: zone of proximal development;
    level: child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task of own
  14. beginning of puberty for boys & girls (menarche, spermarche)
    • boys: 13-14 years old (spermarche) boys->sperm
    • girls: 11-12 years old (menarche) girls->menstruate
  15. Carol Gilligan’s male vs. female morality
    • male: justice and fairness
    • female: centered (individual well-being and social relationships)
    • compassionate, concern/caring
  16. Erikson's identity vs role confusion:
    time of majority testing; try to determine what is unique and special about self
  17. Erikson's intimacy vs isolation:
    developing new relationships
  18. Erikson's generativity vs stagnation:
    contributions to one’s family, community, work, and society; help to develop younger generation
  19. Erikson's ego integrity vs despair:
    reviewing life’s successes and failures
  20. Erikson's adolescent egocentrism:
    state of self-absorption (world viewed from one’s own point of view)
  21. Erikson's personal fable:
    view that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else
  22. suicide warning sign
    • School problems
    • Frequent incidents of self-destructive behavior
    • Loss of appetite or excessive eating
    • Withdrawal from others
    • Sleeping Problems
    • Signs of depression
    • Preoccupation with death
    • Announcement of thoughts of suicide
  23. When are we at the peak of health? and what are the features?
    • 18-25 years
    • greatest physical strength
    • quick reflexes
    • best reproduction period
  24. age of 1st marriage in U.S. of males vs. females
    • Average marriage for men = 28
    • Average marriage for women = 26
  25. midlife transition
    • People may begin to question their lives  (early forties)
    • Idea, their life will end at some point
  26. women’s second shift
    “number of hours working at home by mothers”
  27. gerontologists
    Specialists who study aging
  28. What is the genetic preprogramming theories of aging?
    • suggests a time limit to healthy cellular reproduction
    • cells may become harmfull to the body
  29. what is the wear-and-tear theories of aging?
    suggest mechanical functions of body stop working efficiently as people aging
  30. Alzheimer’s disease
    Progressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities
  31. video gaming effects in late adulthood
    • May improve cognitive functioning in older adults
    • Rise of nations has proven to help with task switching, short-term memory, and reasoning
    • Wii=best for adults
  32. disengagement vs. activity theories of aging
    • disengagement: aging produces gradual withdrawal from world
    • activity: maintain interests, activities, and social interactions, like middle-adulthood
  33. Kubler-Ross: stages for facing impending death
    Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance (DAB DA)