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African American Identity Model: Nigrescence: Five-stage process in which blacks in the US move from a White frame of reference to a positive black one
Pre-encounter: characterized by individuals who consciously or unconsciously devalue their own Af.A background and concurrently value White values and ways.2) Encounter: a two-step process – a) the individual encounters a profound crisis or event that challenges his/her previous mode of thinking and behaving b) the Af.A person begins to reinterpret the world, resulting in a shift in worldviews3) Immersion-emersion: the person withdraws from the dominant culture and becomes immersed in African American culture4) Internalization: characterized by inner security as conflicts between the old and new identities are resolved5) Internalization-commitment: speaks to the commitment that such individuals have toward social change, social justice, and civil rights. It is expressed not only in words, but also in actions that reflect the essence of their lives
Stage model of Asian American ID (by sue and sue;
1) Ethnic awareness: begins around 3 to 4 when the child’s family members serve as the significant ethnic group model. Attitudes based on amount of ethnic exposure conveyed by caretakers2) White identification: begins when children enter school, where peers and the surroundings become powerful forces in conveying racial prejudice that negatively impacts their self-esteem and identity. Leads to self-blame and identifying with White society3) Awakening to social political consciousness: means the adoption of a new perspective, often correlated with increased political awareness. The primary result is an abandoning of identification with White society and a consequent understanding of oppression and oppressed groups4) Redirection to Asian American consciousness: a reconnection or renewed connection with one’s Asian American heritage and culture. Often followed by the realization that White oppression is the culprit for the negative experiences of youth which leads to anger against White racism and a surge in Asian American pride5) Incorporation: highest form of identity evolution. Encompasses the development of a positive and comfortable identity as Asian American and consequent respect for other cultural/racial heritages. Identification for or against White culture is no longer an important issue.
Hispanic/Latino (Ruiz’s Model)
1) Causal Stage: messages or injunction from the environment or significant others either affirm, ignore, negate, or denigrate the ethnic heritage of the person. Affirmation about one’s ethnic identity is lacking, and the person may experience traumatic or humiliating experiences related to ethnicity. There is a failure to identify with Latino culture.2) Cognitive stage: As a result of negative/distorted messages, three erroneous belief systems about Chicano/Latino heritage become incorporated into mental sets 1) ethnic group membership is associated with poverty and prejudice 2) assimilation to white society is the only means of escape 3) assimilation is the only possible road to success3) Consequence stage: fragmentation of ethnic identity becomes very noticeable and evident. The person feels ashamed and is embarrassed by ethnic markers such as name, accent, skin color, cultural customs, and so on. The unwanted self-image leads to estrangement and rejection of one’s Chicano/Latino heritage4) Working-through stage: two major dynamics distinguish this stage. 1) The person becomes increasingly unable to cope with the psychological distress of ethnic identity conflict 2) the person can no longer be a “pretender” by identifying with an alien ethnic identity. The person is propelled to reclaim and reintegrate disowned ethnic identity fragments. Ethnic consciousness increases.5) Successful resolution stage: This last stage is exemplified by greater acceptance of one’s culture and ethnicity. There is an improvement in self-esteem and a sense that ethnic identity represents a positive and success-promoting resource
Rowe et al Model of White Racial Consciousness1
. Unachieved:Avoidant – ignore, avoid, deny, or minimize racial issues Dependent – minimal racial attitudes, follow the lead of sig othersDissonant – conflict b/t belief systems and contradictory exp2. Achieved:Dominative – ethnocentric & belief dom superiority/minority inferiority Conflictive – oppose direct and obvious discrimination but unwilling to change status quo Reactive – good awareness of racism exists but unaware of personal responsibility in perpetuating it.Integrative- integrated sense of Whiteness with regard for minorities