Music History Exam 3

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  1. bebop
    • reaction agains consumerisn, conformity, previous jazz styles (big bands), and artistic repression. Musical revolution against popular trends, also an assertion of racial identity (reclaiming African-American music).
    • Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespe Anthropology 1945
  2. Chromatic saturation
    The appearance of all 12 pitch classes within a segment of music.
  3. Contrafact
    • In Jazz, a new melody composed over a harmonic progression borrowed from another song ("I Got Rhythm")
    • Duke Ellington Cotton tail 1940
  4. Dadaism and Surrealism
    • Dadaism (early 20th Century) interested in sound of words/ syllables, anti art. Mocking traditions through humor. Surrealism comes out of Dadaism and is closely related.
    • Satie Embryons desseches No. 3, de Podophalma 1915
  5. Developing Variation
    • Technique from Brahms coined by Schoenberg. Process of developing new themes, accompaniments, and other ideas throughout a piece through variations of a germinal idea.
    • Brahms Quintet for Piano and Strings in F minor, Op. 34 1865
  6. Expressionism
    • Human psyche (Freud). Centered around Vienna. Maximalization of Romantic interest in self expression. Personal truth more important than beauty.
    • Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire, op. 21 1910
  7. Jean Cocteau
    • Prominent Parisian author. Collaborated with Satie on Parade in 1917. Wrote the scenario and added sound effect instruments, which upset Satie.
    • Satie Parade "Petite Fille Americaine" 1915
  8. Klangfarbenmelodie
    • Notes of the row spread across full range of pitches and instruments available. Creates enough variety and interest in melody, accompaniment unnecessary. 
    • Webern Symphony Op. 21 Ruhig Schreitend 1930
  9. Impressionism and Symbolism
    • Impressionism: visual arts. Not a realistic portrayal of images, creating moods, impressions of objects, colors, light, textures, brush strokes.
    • Symbolism: Literary arts. hidden meaning, multiple meanings, interplay of words.
    • Debussy Nocturnes No. 1 Nuages 1900
  10. maximalization
    • Huge orchestration, length, and symphony concept. 
    • Mahler Kindertotenlieder No. 1 Nun will die sonn so hell aufgeh'n 1900
  11. Modernism
    • 2nd Viennese School. "emancipation of the dissonance." Includes developments in atonality, 12-tone technique, and serialism. 
    • Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire 1910
  12. Music of the Future Controversy
    • Wagner followers vs. Brahms Supporters
    • Wagner: Program music--music alone is not specific enough and needs words for full understanding. (Liszt- Program as a compositional starting point). Composers include Berlioz, Liszt, Mahler, Bruckner, and Wagner.
    • Mahler Kindertotenlieder No. 1 "Nun will die Sonn so hell aufgeh'n" 1900

    • Brahms: Absolute music--purely instrumental; no program. Composers include Schumann, Mendelssohn, and Brahms. Schumann finds programs insulting, preferring his own imagination--resented reading Symphony Fantastique program. Mendelssohn thought words were not specific, while music was (opposite of Wagner).
    • Brahms Symphony no. 4 1885
  13. Neoclassicism
    • Starts in the late 1910/ early 1920s. Reaction against horrors of WWI. Opposite of expressionism. Seeks refuge in a LACK of intense emotion. Music does not have to express anything, it can just BE.
    • Stravinsky Symphony of the Psalms 1930
  14. Neotonality
    • Diatonic framework, not functional harmony. Tonal centers are asserted through repetition, not progressions.
    • Stravinsky Symphony of the Psalms 1930
  15. Primitivism
    • Not trying to be overly realistic. Stylized/ interest in folk quality. "Primitive"= life in its ideal state--refuge from over-civilization; fusion of ultra-modern with archaic past. Humans stripped of humanity; as biological creatures.
    • Stravinsky Rite of Spring 1915
  16. Ragtime
    • Style/ genre of jazz, popular in 1890s-1910s. Ensemble (band) or solo (piano). Features syncopation (jagged rhythms) against march-like rhythms. Originally improvised. 
    • Joplin Maple Leaf Rag 1900
  17. Second New England School
    • Includes Horatio Parker, Edward MacDowell, Amy Beach. First real "professional" American composers. Question of (inter)national style.
    • Amy Beach Piano Quintet 1905
  18. Second Viennese School
    • Arnold Schoenberg= leader/ founder. Students include Berg and Webern. Mastering historical traditions such as "developing variation"-Brahms), Bach counterpoint, and adding Romantic aesthetic with modernist musical language. "Emancipation of the dissonance." Atonality, 12-tone, serialism.
    • Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire 1910
  19. Sergei Diaghilev
    • Impresario of Ballet Russes.
    • Stravinsky Rite of Spring 1915
  20. Serialism
    • Music that uses the 12-tone method. Used especially for music that extends the same general approach to series in parameters other than pitch.
    • Stravinsky In Memoriam Dylan Thomas 1960
  21. Sprechstimme
    • A vocal style developed by Arnold Schoenberg in which the performer spproximates the written pitches int he gliding tones of speech, while following notated rhythm.
    • Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire 1910
  22. Tin Pan Alley Form
    • Close ties to Broadway and musical theater. Overall form= verse + chorus. 
    • Verse: AA'B
    • Chorus: lyric binary form AABA' (32 bars + 2 bar tag)
    • Gershwin I Got Rhythm, from Girl Crazy 1930
  23. Twelve-bar Blues
    • Cyclic form with repeating harmonic structure
    • Bars:      1-4     5-6     7-8     9-10     11-12
    • Harmony:  I       IV       I         V           I
    • Lyrics       A        A'                 B     

    Bessie Smith Back Water Blues 1930
Card Set:
Music History Exam 3
2013-04-03 03:15:34
Late Romanticism modernism

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