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- English-American political activist
- Wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) as a call to arms
- a knack for articulating his ideas concisely so that the common man could understand his ideas
- England was treating Americans unfairly
Abbe Joseph Sieeyes
1. counterpart to Thomas Paine who galvanized people to bear arms; wrote What is the Third Estate, which addressed the estates of France and aroused resentment of common order, since he urged for representation
Tennis Court Oath
1. The third estate in French society took this oath, which initiated the French revolution and declared a new government and national assembly
1. He wanted to solve the problem of efficient power because source of fuel was lost and homes needed to be heated. Newcomen was an English inventor who created the first practical steam engine for pumping water developed around 1710.
He perfected the first real steam engine in 1763. This steam engine was used in large coal mining enterprises. The steam engine was converted from rotary power to motive power. Watt has a unit of power named after him
1. created by Stevenson; it was a steam engine on wheels and moved on rails
- middle class family who was refused a diploma because he was atheist
- editor of newspaper but caused it to close down due to his radical ideas
- met Engels, who collaborated with him
- The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
- active in forming International Working Men's Association
- Irishman living in London in the 1780s
- Reflections on the Revolution in France.
- appalled by the fall of the Bastille
wrote the Essay on the Principle of Population
argued that the population grows at a geometric rate faster than the food supply, leading to food shortages adn starvation and distress, a regular part of nature
John Stuart Mill
1. British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. He was a proponent of utilitarianism. Mill was also an advocate of free speech.
Great Reform Bill (Reform Act of 1832)
- Disenfranchised 56 rotten boroughs and enfranchised 42 new towns and cities and reapportioned others
- Property qualification for voting was retained
- Benefited upper middle class
- i. recognition to changes wrought in British life by Industrial Revolution
- studied flora and fauna
- observed finches on the Galapagos Islands during his expedition on the HMS Beagle
- A Romantic thinker
- father of Great Man theory
- stated the belief that history is dependent upon the type of character of someone
Sir Walter Scott
- Romantic writer
- wrote Ivanhoe
- possessed a dreamlike view of the Middle Ages
English poet who wrote about nature. He found a spiritual quality in nature. Wordsworth wrote during the Romantic era
Turner was a British Romantic landscape painter. Turner had a dreamy view of nature. Turner included humans in many of his paintings. He focused on light which was indicative of God
- Classical music composer; child prodigy; wrote in every genre, including symphony and opera
- 41 symphonies
- first prominent Romantic composer
- program music
- angry and defiant with everyone
- social misfit
- 9 symphonies
wrote “The Fantastic Symphony” and was a typical product of the romantic era; he was a starving musician in Paris until he went to a theater and fell in love w/ Harriet the minute he saw her; he stalks Harriet and begins writing music that becomes popular; wrote many pieces under the influence of drugs
- 1. ushered in a new age and tried to centralize the government. Napoleon III realized that he needed the support of the middle class in order to be successful. Napoleon III failed at foreign policy because he overestimated his abilities.
- (Louis Napoleon)
Under Napoleon III, he rebuilt the city of Paris. The newly widened streets of Paris served a militaristic purpose making it easier for revolts to be suppressed.
Otto von Bismarck
1. Bismarck was born as an aristocrat in the Junker class who was active in politics before he withdrew from it. Returning to political life, he came to power in 1862 as chancellor. Bismarck transformed Prussia into the powerhouse of Europe by redefining the military. Bismarck became involved in a series of wars. By 1871, as a result of his victories, the Second Empire of Germany arose. He is often called the “Iron Chancellor”.
1. Flaubert was a French writer who is counted among the greatest novelists in Western literature. He wrote Madame Bovary which was a novel portraying life as it truly occurs. The story focuses on a doctor's wife, Emma Bovary, who has adulterous affairs and lives beyond her means in order to escape the banalities and emptiness of provincial life.
He was an English novelist of the 19th century. He wrote Vanity Fair and described unhappy people and unfortunate circumstances. In Vanity Fair, Thackeray criticized 19th century British society.
- 1. English writer and social critic.
- wrote primarily about hte lower classes
- generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period. Some of his works include; Great Expectations, A Tale of Two Cities, and Oliver Twist.
- His literary style is a mixture of fantasy and realism.
invented the electromagnetic generator
- criticized Einstein's theory of relativity
- believed atoms were immutable
- created an electrical coil to be used in transmission of radio waves
sent out the first radio waves across the Atlantic Ocean in 1903
- 1. Austrian inventor of the first motor car thanks to petroleum
- German born
- it was a shallow-drass steamer
- British gun boat
- 60 x 30
- equipped with massive fire power (3 cannons, 2 smaller weapons, rocket launcher)
- used in First Anglo-Chinese War (Opium War)
- nicknamed "devil ship"
incandescent light bulb
1903, at Ktty hawk, NC, they created the first successful airplane
1. represents modernity and resulted in competition because Britain wanted sole control, so they could easily get to Africa
1. A new Yorker who created the first automatic machine gun that fired 600 rounds a minute known as “Little Daisy”
theory of relativity
- id, ego, superego
- sexual repression
- Oedipus complex
1. famous for saying “God is dead”. He responded negatively to advancements. He was a philosopher who believed that western civilization is empty and only seeks power and money.
Pope Leo XIII
1. stood up in 1874 against attacks against religion when he announced his encyclical, De Rerum Novarum (1891) (Concerning New Things). In this encyclical he states that God is real and traditional views will be enforced. He also introduced the concept of papal infallibility which means that the pope cannot make errors when speaking ex cathedra.
1. He wanted to set Germany on a “new course”. William II kicked Bismarck out because Bismarck had the interests of the state in mind, whereas William wanted aggressive imperialism. Under William’s rule Germany developed its first navy. He advocated war with Great Britain and lost power in 1918, which was the year Germany surrendered and lost WWI (Treaty of Versailles).
1. 20th century impressionist artist. Monet was the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature. The term Impressionism is derived from the title of his painting Impression, Sunrise.
Vincent van Gogh
Van Gogh was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter whose work, notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. After years of painful anxiety and frequent bouts of mental illness, he died aged 37 from a gunshot wound, generally accepted to be self-inflicted. His work included self-portraits, landscapes, still life paintings, portraits and paintings of cypresses, wheat fields and sunflowers
1. Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer who spent most of his adult life in France. He was a 20th century modern artist who co-founded the Cubist movement. As an abstract painter, Picasso’s paintings were distorted and hard to decipher. One of his most famous works is Guernica which portrayed the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
Kafka strongly influenced genres such as existentialism. He was a 20th century writer who wrote The Metamorphosis, which represented a confused life of the main character, Gregor Samsa, who transformed into a cockroach. Kafka’s writings are filled with the themes and archetypes of alienation, physical and psychological brutality, parent–child conflict, characters on a terrifying quest, and mystical transformations.
1. He created the ballet “The Rite of Spring”. It was put on in 1914 and resulted in riots in Paris because it was so different. Stravinsky was a Russian composer.
Austrian composer and painter, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art. He created “The Theory of Harmony” in 1911. His music was lyrical and followed classical norms. In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique
founder of Social Darwinism. He believed that the weaker states should be taken over because they will be “brought to speed”. Spencer is best known for coining the expression "survival of the fittest", which he did in Principles of Biology (1864), after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species