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• Key developer of the psychoanalytic approach
•First to develop a theory about the unconscious mind
- •Turned to “talking cure” after medical techniques did
- not work for his patients
−mostly women suffering from hysteria
- •Believed that our adult personalities are formed by our
- childhood experiences
- –emphasis on the concept of a collective unconscious
- •All humans share a collective consciousness
- •At age 12, he developed fainting spells after a
- classmate pushed him so hard to the ground that he lost consciousness
- •He later explained this as his first encounter with
- –every human had a goal to strive for superiority
- •One of the earliest theorists to utilize a short-term,
- active, focused and solution-oriented approach to psychotherapy. “ (Durbin,
- •Believed feelings of inferiority activated a persons
- drive to succeed.
- –Those feelings would compel the human being to solve his
- or her problems successfully
- –An inferiority complex
- would impede or prevent one from doing so.
- –thought sociocultural factors played a more significant
- role in personality development
- •Developed theories from her personal life and how she
dealt with problems
•Theory of neurosis
- − emphasizes that the neurotic should be
- aware of their environmental factors that surround them and their inner-self,
- knowing who they are. (Langenderfer, 1999).
- rejected Freud’s views on female psychology, especially his concept of penis
- −Instead, she proposed the concept of womb
- envy, in which men
- experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children.
- (Cherry, 2012).
- •Carl R. Rogers is known as the father of client-centered
- •Emphasized personal awareness and client ability to make significant
- choices (Hall, 1997).
- •Three requirements that the therapist must provide −genuineness, unconditional positive regard,
- and empathy
- –Hierarchy of needs
- 1950’s, recognized a s the founding father of the humanistic school of
•Hierarchy of Needs
- –self-actualization is
- achieved when a person is in unity and harmony with themselves and their
- his research on the experiences of mentally stable people
•Developed CBT in the mid-1960s
- •First to use science (replicable data) to validate the
- use of psychotherapy
•Beck Depression and Beck Anxiety inventories
•Reading Charles Darwin influenced his pursuit of science
- •Interested most by: digestion and blood circulation
- (WGBH, 1998).
- •His work in behavioral therapy originated from looking
- at the digestive process in dogs
- on Watson used animals to study behavior, then moved on to study human behavior
- and emotion
- –Watson theorized that children have three basic
- emotional reactions: fear, rage, and love (Watson, 1999).
- wanted to use his theories to improve the effects of advertising on consumers
- (Watson, 1999).
- much of his childhood building things (Vargas, 2005).
- Operant Conditioning is based on Thorndike’s Law of Effect
- believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of
- an action and its consequences
- –More productive to study observable behavior rather than
- internal mental events (McLeod, 2007).
- •A shy and studious boy, he was teased quite a bit and
- lived a fairly isolated childhood (Boeree, 2006).
•His theory is one of the first humanistic theories
–Influenced Kelly, Maslow, and Rogers.
- –Humans are motivated by the need to satisfy biological
- survival needs
- •“Allport originally used the word traits, but found that
- so many people assumed he meant traits as perceived by someone looking at
- another person or measured by personality tests, rather than as unique,
- individual characteristics within a person, that he changed it to dispositions”
- (Boeree, 2006).
–conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism
- •Bandura’s three basic models
- of observational learning:
–A live model
–A verbal instructional model
–A symbolic model
- reinforced by family members is the most prominent source of behavior modeling
- (Isom, 1998).
•Bobo Doll Experiment
- –Children learn and imitate the behaviors of others
- (Kendra Cherry,2012)
The id is the unorganized part of the personality structure that contains a human's basic, instinctual drives.
-Sally was thirsty. Rather than waiting for the server to refill her glass of water, she reached across the table and drank from Mr. Smith’s water glass, much to his surprise.
The ego acts according to the reality principle; i.e. it seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bring grief.
-Sally was thirsty. However, she knew that her server would be back soon to refill her water glass, so she waited until then to get a drink, even though she really just wanted to drink from Mr. Smith’s glass.
The super-ego aims for perfection. It comprises that organized part of the personality structure, mainly but not entirely unconscious, that includes the individual's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the psychic agency (commonly called "conscience") that criticizes and prohibits his or her drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions.
-Sarah knew that she could steal the supplies from work and no one would know about it. However, she knew that stealing was wrong, so she decided not to take anything even though she would probably never get caught.