Psych8: Thinking and Intelligence

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Author:
nanapria
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211104
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Psych8: Thinking and Intelligence
Updated:
2013-04-03 00:40:19
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psychology thinking
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Chapter 8 Psych
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  1. cognition
    mental activity such as thinking or representing information
  2. analogical representation
    a mental representation that has some of the physical characteristics of an object; it is analogous to the object

    maps, family trees, etc.
  3. symbolic representation
    an abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object or idea

    words, ideas, etc.
  4. defining attribute model
    the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of the category
  5. prototype model
    an approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that within each category, some members are more representative than others


    come items within a group or class are more representative of that category than are other items within that group or class
  6. exemplar model
    information stored about the members of a category is used to determine category membership
  7. reasoning
    using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable
  8. decision making
    attempting to select the best alternative among several options
  9. problem solving
    finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal
  10. deductive reasoning
    using a belief or rule to determine if a conclusion is valid (follows logically from the belief or rule)

    general to specific
  11. inductive reasoning
    using examples or instances to determine if a rule or conclusion is likely to be true

    specific to general
  12. heuristics
    in problem solving, shortcuts (rule of thumb or informal guidelines) used to reduce the amount of thinking that is needed to move from an initial state to a goal state
  13. availability heuristic
    making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind
  14. representativeness heuristic
    a rule for categorization based on how similar the person or object is to our prototypes for that category
  15. framing
    the effect of presentation on how information is perceived
  16. insight
    the sudden realization of a solution to a problem
  17. restructuring
    new way of thinking about a problem that aids its solution
  18. mental set
    a problem solving strategy that has worked in the past
  19. intelligence
    the human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental changes
  20. achievement tests
    test current levels of skills and knowledge
  21. aptitude test
    tests whether a person will be good at things in the future
  22. mental age
    an assessment of a child's intellectual standing relative to that of his peers; determined by a comparison of the child's test score with the average score for children of each chronological age
  23. intelligence quotient (IQ)
    the number computed by dividing a child's estimated mental age by the child's chronological age, and then multiplying this number by 100.
  24. general intelligence (or g)
    the idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities
  25. fluid intelligence
    information processing in novel or complex circumstances
  26. crystallized intelligence
    knowledge acquired through experience and the ability to use that knowledge
  27. multiple intelligences
    the idea that people can show different skills in a variety of different domains
  28. emotional intelligence (EQ)
    a form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions
  29. sterotype threat
    apprehension about confirming negative sterotypes related to one's own group

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