Trace Elements (sources, RI, function, deficiency, groups @ risk, toxicity, UL)

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Trace Elements (sources, RI, function, deficiency, groups @ risk, toxicity, UL)
2013-04-03 02:09:52

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  1. Iron
    • red meats, leafy greens, dried fruit, grains
    • RDA: 8-18mg/d
    • oxygen transport, energy metabolism, enzyme cofactor, immune function
    • uptake into intestinal mucosal cells, transport in blood
    • stored in liver, spleen
    • regulated by hepcidin
    • deficiency: D-stores, D-transport, D-hemoglobin synthesis, anemia (Pica)
    • tox: iron poisoning, hemochromatosis
    • UL: 45mg/day
  2. Zinc
    • enzyme cofactor
    • red meats (best), shellfish, poultry, liver, dairy, grains, legumes
    • absorped by metallothionein in mucosal cell, transported by albumin
    • RDA: men: 11mg/day, women: 8mg/day
    • deficiency: growth retardation, arrested sexual maturation, altered digestive function, impaired immune response (acrodermatitis enteropathica)
    • tox: potential Cu or FE deficiency, lowers HDL, GI distress
    • UL: 40mg/day
  3. Iodide
    • component of two thyroid hormones (thyroxine & triodothyronine)
    • seafood, costal plants, iodized salt
    • RDA: 150mcg/day
    • deficiency: cretinism
    • tox: enlarged thyroid gland (goiter)
    • UL: 1,100mc/day
  4. Copper
    • enzyme cofactor, pigmentation
    • nuts, legumes, seeds, chocolate, liver, oysters, whole grains
    • RDA: 900mcg/day
    • incorporated into ceruloplasmin in liver, excreted in bile
    • deficiency: rare, Menke's disease
    • tox: Wilson's disease
    • UL: 10,000µg/day
  5. Manganese
    • enzyme cofactor
    • RDA; men(, women(1.8mg/day)
    • deficiency: unknown in humans, affects growth in animals
    • tox: effects nervous systems (more common in mines and steel workers)
    • UL: 11mg/day
  6. Fluoride
    • strengthens bones and teeth (fluorapatite)
    • tea, seafood, tap water
    • RDA: men(4mg/day), women(3mg/day)
    • deficiency: increased caries
    • tox: fluorosis
    • UL: 10mg/day
  7. Chromium
    • maintains glucose homeostasis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
    • brewer's yeast, meats, eggs, whole grains, nuts, less refined food
    • RDA: men(35mcg/day), women(25mcg/day)
    • deficiency: impaired glucose tolerance in animals, prevalence in humans unknown
    • tox: cellular DNA damage (chromium-6)
  8. Selenium
    • antioxidant, regulates thyroid hormone metabolism
    • seafood, meats, grains, soil content highly variable
    • RDA: 55mcg/day
    • deficiency:possible increase susceptibility to nutritional, chemical or infectious stresses. Keshan's disease (China)
    • tox: selenosis
    • UL: 400mcg/day
  9. Molybdenum
    • enzyme cofactor
    • milk, legumes, grains, nuts, dependent on soil content
    • RDA: 45mcg/day
    • deficiency: unknown in humans
    • tox: arthritis and joint inflammation
    • UL: 2mg/day