Evolution AP Bio
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Change of allele frequencies in a gene pool
Appearance of a major evolutionary development or a new species
Changes in a single gene pool
Anagenesis or phyletic evolution
When one species replaces another
When a new species branches out from a parent species
1) How old is the Earth
2)Half life/carbon dating
- 4.6 billion years old
- radioactive dating/half life have proved this
Definition and example:
Have a common origin and reflect a common ancestry (wing of bat, lateral fin of a whale, and the arm of a human have the same bone structures).
Definition and Example:
Reflects an adaptation to similar environments and not descent from a recent common ancestor (bat's wing, fly's wing)
Definition and Example:
Structures that we don't use anymore (appendix was when we had a different diet).
The more closely organisms are related to each other:
What does this have to do with animal testing?
The similar their biochemisty is.
This is the reason why mice drug test results are relevant to humans.
Embryonic Development-All embryos have what on the side of their throat?
What do they develop into?
They have gill pouches on the side of their throat.
These pouches develop into gills in fish and eustachian tubes in the ears in mammals.
Which cytochrome do all organisms contain?
They all contain Cytochrome C. Some cytochrome c's differ by organism
Linnaeus and Carl von Linne-
- Catastrophes shaped the Earth
- Leading geologist-gradualism
- Inheritance of acquired characteristics and use and disuse
Descent with modification
- Natural selection/descent with modification
Darwin's theory #1
Populations grow ___________
Darwin's Theory #2
Overpopulation results in a struggle for
Darwin's Theory #3
In any population, there is variation and
an unequal ability of individuals to survive
Darwin's Theory #4
Only the best fit individuals _ and _
Survive and pass traits to their offspring
Darwin's Theory #5
Evolution occurs as _ traits accumulate in a population
How did it get its long neck?
Individuals with long necks were more fit with the limited food supply.
Insects with pesticides- What type of selection?
Stabilizing selection: Define:
Eliminates extremes, favors a common intermediate form
Stabilizing selection keeps birth weight at 6-8 lbs
Disruptive Selection: Define
What is balanced polymorphism?
Increases the extreme types in the population at the expense of the intermediate forms
One population divided into two distinct types (brown mice, white mice)
Explain the moths
One phenotype replaces another in a gene pool
Dark moths were camouflaged and has a selective advantage.
Plasmids (small DNA molecules) carried from bacteria to bacteria spread the mutation for antibiotic resistance
Testosterone vs Estrogen in relation to sexual dimorphism
Selection based on variation in secondary sex characteristics in competing for attracting mates.
Difference between males/females (testosterone in males vs estrogen in females)
Seeking individuals with common traits as breeding stock.
Food in the store
Snails (shells, etc)
Each morph is better adapted in a _ area
Presence of two or more phenotypically distinct traits in a population
Dark banded snails living on the ground are less distinct than plain ones
Different varieties of a species that exist.
Rabbits with fur, rabbits that radiate excess body heat
Cline is another word for what?
North-south Cline. Which species?
Independent assortment of chromosomes:
Provides variation due to the shuffling and recombination of alleles during meiosis
Exchange between chromosomes
Recombination of unlinked genes
1 sperm out of a million, enormous variety
Mating of organisms within one species that are not closely related
The dominant male of a pride chases away the young maturing male to ensure that these young males will not interbreed with their female siblings. Now it is the lions job to find another pride and overthrow the leader.
Hidden pool of what?
Hidden pool of alleles that may be advantageous when conditions change in the future.
Example: Sickle-cell anemia in Africa
Preserves multiple alleles in a population (Aa)
Ss have normal hemoglobin, but ss have sickle cell
Frequency-dependent selection (minority advantage)
Example: Search image (predator vs prey)
Decrease the frequency of the more common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less common ones.
Innate image of prey. Individuals that look different are harder to eat
Evolutionary Neutral Traits
Have no what?
Example: Blood type and fingerprint variation
Don't do anything
Fluctuation of alleles from one _ to the _
- Change in the gene pool due to chance.
- One generation to the other and is unpredictable.
Example: Caused by natural disasters
Tay-Sachs It's bottleneck, but resulted from what?
Natural disasters such as fire, earthquake, and flood reduce the size of a population unselectively. Certain alleles may be over or underrepresented due to the disaster and species that survived.
Population is not representative of the _ population.
Example: Describe the Germans who came to the US and having extra fingers and toes.
When a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area.
Not representative of the original population.
People from Germany had extra fingers and toes and passed this.
Example: Pollen from one valley to another valley or migration
Movement of alleles into or out of a population
Example: A single point mutation can introduce a new allele into a population.
Changes in genetic material and the raw material for evolutionary change. Increase diversity.
Those individuals who are better adapted in a particular environment exhibit better reproductive success.
Hardy Weinberg Principle: (allele frequencies do not change)
1) The population must be very _2) Population must be _ from other populations3)There must be no _ in population4) Mating must be _5) No _ selection
Hardy Weinberg Equation:
p2+2pq+q2=1 or p+q=1
Find square roots and such
- P-dominant allele
Members can what?
Ligers in captivity
Interbreed in nature and produce fertile, viable offspring
Example: No interbreeding if populations of species become too different over time
One group of genes becomes isolated from another to begin a separate evolutionary history. No more interbreeding even if they meet again
Results from what?
Breaking off into a new species
Allopatric Speciation is caused by:
Mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
Sympatric Speciation: Occurs without _ isolation
Polyploidy, habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, temporal isolation, and reproductive isolation.
Cells has more than two what?
Complete sets of chromosomes
Example: Water snake vs terrestrial snake
Two organisms live in the same area but encounter each other rarely.
Mating behaviors attract different mates.
Example: Flowers in regions that are warmer become sexually mature sooner than other flowers
Time and weather
Example: Differences in the structure of genitalia.
Closely related species that are unable to mate.
Example: Large dog and small dog
Things that prevent mating
Example: A zygote is not viable (succesful)
Prevents the production of fertile offspring, once mating has occurred.
Population becomes isolated and evolves into a new species as a result of selective pressures.
Example: Whale (lives in water, has a mammalian bone structure)
When unrelated species occupy the same environment, they show similar adaptations to native species.
Example: Gray wolf of North America and Tasmanian wolf of Australia shared a common ancestor and there is linkage
Two related species that have made similar evolutionary adaptations after divergence from a common ancestor.
Example: Butterfly laying eggs on milkweed plant to prevent predators from eating them
Reciprocal evolutionary set of adaptations of two interacting species.
When prey evolves, predator must evolve.
Example: Darwin's Finches
Emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment.
Darwin's finches diverged from a common finch 10,000 years ago.
Example: Missing links, scientists rarely find transitional forms.
Theory that organisms evolve from an ancestor gradually over time, in linear or branching fashion.
A new species changes most as it buds from the parents species and then changes little for the rest of its existence.
Hypothesized conditions under which Earth could form with organic molecules
Energy sources would have converted molecules in the early atmosphere into a variety of organic molecules
Began with one organic molecule and was able to produce membrane-bound, cell-like structures
First cells on Earth: Anaerobic Heterotrophic Prokaryotes
Absorbed what as an energy source?
Absorbed organic molecules as an energy source.
Example: Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free living cells, but they joined larger prokaryotic cells in a symbiotic relationship.
Major changes in the past were caused by catastophies
Mechanisms are constant over a period of time
Parts of the body that are used survive. Others deteriorate.
Sperm of one egg may not be able to fertilize the sperm of another egg
Example: One Individual
Contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of next generation, relative to the contributions of the gene pool from the next generation.
Region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry.
Evolutionary change in which many groups of organisms form many species whose adaptations allow them to fill many niches.
- Age of mammals
- Age of reptiles
- Transition from ocean to land
- 3.8 billion years ago eukaryotes or prokaryotes
- 2.3 billion years ago
- 500 million to present-current life
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