Appearance of a major evolutionary development or a new species
Changes in a single gene pool
Anagenesis or phyletic evolution
When one species replaces another
When a new species branches out from a parent species
1) How old is the Earth
2)Half life/carbon dating
4.6 billion years old
radioactive dating/half life have proved this
Definition and example:
Have a common origin and reflect a common ancestry (wing of bat, lateral fin of a whale, and the arm of a human have the same bone structures).
Definition and Example:
Reflects an adaptation to similar environments and not descent from a recent common ancestor (bat's wing, fly's wing)
Definition and Example:
Structures that we don't use anymore (appendix was when we had a different diet).
The more closely organisms are related to each other:
What does this have to do with animal testing?
The similar their biochemisty is.
This is the reason why mice drug test results are relevant to humans.
Embryonic Development-All embryos have what on the side of their throat?
What do they develop into?
They have gill pouches on the side of their throat.
These pouches develop into gills in fish and eustachian tubes in the ears in mammals.
Which cytochrome do all organisms contain?
They all contain Cytochrome C. Some cytochrome c's differ by organism
Linnaeus and Carl von Linne-
Catastrophes shaped the Earth
Inheritance of acquired characteristics and use and disuse
Descent with modification
Natural selection/descent with modification
Darwin's theory #1
Populations grow ___________
Darwin's Theory #2
Overpopulation results in a struggle for
Darwin's Theory #3
In any population, there is variation and
an unequal ability of individuals to survive
Darwin's Theory #4
Only the best fit individuals _ and _
Survive and pass traits to their offspring
Darwin's Theory #5
Evolution occurs as _ traits accumulate in a population
How did it get its long neck?
Individuals with long necks were more fit with the limited food supply.
Insects with pesticides- What type of selection?
Stabilizing selection: Define:
Eliminates extremes, favors a common intermediate form
Stabilizing selection keeps birth weight at 6-8 lbs
Disruptive Selection: Define
What is balanced polymorphism?
Increases the extreme types in the population at the expense of the intermediate forms
One population divided into two distinct types (brown mice, white mice)
Explain the moths
One phenotype replaces another in a gene pool
Dark moths were camouflaged and has a selective advantage.
Plasmids (small DNA molecules) carried from bacteria to bacteria spread the mutation for antibiotic resistance
Testosterone vs Estrogen in relation to sexual dimorphism
Selection based on variation in secondary sex characteristics in competing for attracting mates.
Difference between males/females (testosterone in males vs estrogen in females)
Seeking individuals with common traits as breeding stock.
Food in the store
Snails (shells, etc)
Each morph is better adapted in a _ area
Presence of two or more phenotypically distinct traits in a population
Dark banded snails living on the ground are less distinct than plain ones
Different varieties of a species that exist.
Rabbits with fur, rabbits that radiate excess body heat
Cline is another word for what?
North-south Cline. Which species?
Independent assortment of chromosomes:
Provides variation due to the shuffling and recombination of alleles during meiosis
Exchange between chromosomes
Recombination of unlinked genes
1 sperm out of a million, enormous variety
Mating of organisms within one species that are not closely related
The dominant male of a pride chases away the young maturing male to ensure that these young males will not interbreed with their female siblings. Now it is the lions job to find another pride and overthrow the leader.
Hidden pool of what?
Hidden pool of alleles that may be advantageous when conditions change in the future.
Example: Sickle-cell anemia in Africa
Preserves multiple alleles in a population (Aa)
Ss have normal hemoglobin, but ss have sickle cell