Evolution AP Bio

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Trekofstarsx
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Evolution AP Bio
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2013-04-03 05:07:53
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AP Bio
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AP Bio Evolution
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  1. Evolution
    Change of allele frequencies in a gene pool
  2. Macroevolution
    Appearance of a major evolutionary development or a new species
  3. Microevolution
    Changes in a single gene pool
  4. Anagenesis or phyletic evolution
    When one species replaces another
  5. Cladogenesis
    When a new species branches out from a parent species
  6. Fossil Record
    1) How old is the Earth
    2)Half life/carbon dating
    • 4.6 billion years old
    • radioactive dating/half life have proved this
  7. Homologous structures

    Definition and example:
    Have a common origin and reflect a common ancestry (wing of bat, lateral fin of a whale, and the arm of a human have the same bone structures).
  8. Analogous Structures

    Definition and Example:
    Reflects an adaptation to similar environments and not descent from a recent common ancestor (bat's wing, fly's wing)
  9. Vestigial Structures

    Definition and Example:
    Structures that we don't use anymore (appendix was when we had a different diet).
  10. Comparative Biochemistry

    The more closely organisms are related to each other:

    What does this have to do with animal testing?
    The similar their biochemisty is.

    This is the reason why mice drug test results are relevant to humans.
  11. Comparative Embryology: 

    Embryonic Development-All embryos have what on the side of their throat?

    What do they develop into?
    They have gill pouches on the side of their throat.

    These pouches develop into gills in fish and eustachian tubes in the ears in mammals.
  12. Molecular Biology:

    Which cytochrome do all organisms contain?
    They all contain Cytochrome C. Some cytochrome c's differ by organism
  13. Scientists:

    Linnaeus and Carl von Linne-
    Cuvier-
    Hutton-
    Lyell-
    Lamarck-
    • Taxonomy
    • Catastrophes shaped the Earth
    • Gradualism
    • Leading geologist-gradualism
    • Inheritance of acquired characteristics and use and disuse
  14. Wallace
    Darwin
    Descent with modification
    • Essay
    • Natural selection/descent with modification
  15. Darwin's theory #1

    Populations grow ___________
    Exponentially
  16. Darwin's Theory #2

    Overpopulation results in a struggle for
    Existence
  17. Darwin's Theory #3

    In any population, there is variation and
    an unequal ability of individuals to survive
  18. Darwin's Theory #4

    Only the best fit individuals _ and _
    Survive and pass traits to their offspring
  19. Darwin's Theory #5

    Evolution occurs as _ traits accumulate in a population
    Advantageous
  20. Giraffe:

    How did it get its long neck?
    Individuals with long necks were more fit with the limited food supply.
  21. Insects with pesticides- What type of selection?
    Directional selection
  22. Stabilizing selection: Define:

    Birth weight?
    Eliminates extremes, favors a common intermediate form

    Stabilizing selection keeps birth weight at 6-8 lbs
  23. Disruptive Selection: Define

    What is balanced polymorphism?
    Increases the extreme types in the population at the expense of the intermediate forms

    One population divided into two distinct types (brown mice, white mice)
  24. Directional Selection

    Explain the moths

    Bacteria
    One phenotype replaces another in a gene pool

    Dark moths were camouflaged and has a selective advantage. 

    Plasmids (small DNA molecules) carried from bacteria to bacteria spread the mutation for antibiotic resistance
  25. Sexual Selection

    Sexual Dimorphism

    Testosterone vs Estrogen in relation to sexual dimorphism
    Selection based on variation in secondary sex characteristics in competing for attracting mates.

    Difference between males/females (testosterone in males vs estrogen in females)
  26. Artificial Selection:

    Example:
    Seeking individuals with common traits as breeding stock.

    Food in the store
  27. Balanced Polymorphism

    Snails (shells, etc)

    Each morph is better adapted in a _ area
    Presence of two or more phenotypically distinct traits in a population

    Dark banded snails living on the ground are less distinct than plain ones

    different
  28. Geographic Variation

    Example: Rabbits
    Different varieties of a species that exist.

    Rabbits with fur, rabbits that radiate excess body heat
  29. Cline is another word for what?

    North-south Cline. Which species?
    Variation

    Rabbit
  30. Sexual Reproduction:

    Crossing-over: 

    Independent assortment of chromosomes:

    Random fertilization:
    Provides variation due to the shuffling and recombination of alleles during meiosis

    Exchange between chromosomes

    Recombination of unlinked genes

    1 sperm out of a million, enormous variety
  31. Outbreeding

    Lions-Inbreeding Safeguard
    Mating of organisms within one species that are not closely related

    The dominant male of a pride chases away the young maturing male to ensure that these young males will not interbreed with their female siblings. Now it is the lions job to find another pride and overthrow the leader.
  32. Dipoloidy (2n)

    Hidden pool of what?
    Hidden pool of alleles that may be advantageous when conditions change in the future.
  33. Heterozygote Advantage

    Example: Sickle-cell anemia in Africa
    Preserves multiple alleles in a population (Aa)

    Ss have normal hemoglobin, but ss have sickle cell
  34. Frequency-dependent selection (minority advantage)

    Example: Search image (predator vs prey)
    Decrease the frequency of the more common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less common ones.

    Innate image of prey. Individuals that look different are harder to eat
  35. Evolutionary Neutral Traits 

    Have no what?

    Example: Blood type and fingerprint variation
    Selective value

    Don't do anything
  36. Genetic Drift

    Fluctuation of alleles from one _ to the _
    • Change in the gene pool due to chance.
    • One generation to the other and is unpredictable.
  37. Bottleneck Effect:

    Example: Caused by natural disasters

    Tay-Sachs It's bottleneck, but resulted from what?
    Natural disasters such as fire, earthquake, and flood reduce the size of a population unselectively. Certain alleles may be over or underrepresented due to the disaster and species that survived.

    Persecution
  38. Founder Effect: 

    Population is not representative of the _ population.

    Example: Describe the Germans who came to the US and having extra fingers and toes.
    When a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area. 

    Not representative of the original population.

    People from Germany had extra fingers and toes and passed this.
  39. Gene flow

    Example: Pollen from one valley to another valley or migration
    Movement of alleles into or out of a population
  40. Mutations:

    Example: A single point mutation can introduce a new allele into a population.
    Changes in genetic material and the raw material for evolutionary change. Increase diversity.
  41. Natural Selection:
    Those individuals who are better adapted in a particular environment exhibit better reproductive success.
  42. Hardy Weinberg Principle: (allele frequencies do not change)
    1) The population must be very _2) Population must be _ from other populations3)There must be no _ in population4) Mating must be _5) No _ selection
  43. Hardy Weinberg Equation:

    p2+2pq+q2=1 or p+q=1

    p-dominant
    q-recessive
    Find square roots and such

    • P-dominant allele
    • q-recessive
  44. Species:

    Members can what?

    Ligers in captivity
    Interbreed in nature and produce fertile, viable offspring
  45. Reproductive Isolation

    Example: No interbreeding if populations of species become too different over time
    One group of genes becomes isolated from another to begin a separate evolutionary history. No more interbreeding even if they meet again
  46. Speciation:

    Results from what?
    Breaking off into a new species

    Reproductive isolation
  47. Allopatric Speciation is caused by:
    Geographic isolation

    Mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
  48. Sympatric Speciation: Occurs without _ isolation
    Geographic

    Polyploidy, habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, temporal isolation, and reproductive isolation.
  49. Polyploidy:

    Cells has more than two what?
    Complete sets of chromosomes
  50. Habitat Isolation:

    Example: Water snake vs terrestrial snake
    Two organisms live in the same area but encounter each other rarely.
  51. Behavioral Isolation:
    Mating behaviors attract different mates.
  52. Temporal Isolation:

    Example: Flowers in regions that are warmer become sexually mature sooner than other flowers
    Time and weather
  53. Reproductive Isolation: 

    Example: Differences in the structure of genitalia.
    Closely related species that are unable to mate.
  54. Prezygotic Barriers:

    Example: Large dog and small dog
    Things that prevent mating
  55. Postzygotic Barriers:

    Example: A zygote is not viable (succesful)
    Prevents the production of fertile offspring, once mating has occurred.
  56. Divergent Evolution:
    Population becomes isolated and evolves into a new species as a result of selective pressures.
  57. Convergent Evolution:

    Example: Whale (lives in water, has a mammalian bone structure)
    When unrelated species occupy the same environment, they show similar adaptations to native species.
  58. Parallel Evolution:

    Example: Gray wolf of North America and Tasmanian wolf of Australia shared a common ancestor and there is linkage
    Two related species that have made similar evolutionary adaptations after divergence from a common ancestor.
  59. Coevolution:

    Example: Butterfly laying eggs on milkweed plant to prevent predators from eating them
    Reciprocal evolutionary set of adaptations of two interacting species. 

    When prey evolves, predator must evolve.
  60. Adaptive Radiation:

    Example: Darwin's Finches
    Emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment. 

    Darwin's finches diverged from a common finch 10,000 years ago.
  61. Gradualism:

    Example: Missing links, scientists rarely find transitional forms.
    Theory that organisms evolve from an ancestor gradually over time, in linear or branching fashion.
  62. Punctuated Equilibrium:
    A new species changes most as it buds from the parents species and then changes little for the rest of its existence.
  63. Oparin/Haldane
    Hypothesized conditions under which Earth could form with organic molecules
  64. Miller/Urey
    Energy sources would have converted molecules in the early atmosphere into a variety of organic molecules
  65. Sidney Fox
    Began with one organic molecule and was able to produce membrane-bound, cell-like structures
  66. First cells on Earth: Anaerobic Heterotrophic Prokaryotes


    Absorbed what as an energy source?
    Absorbed organic molecules as an energy source.
  67. Endosymbiosis: 

    Example: Mitochondria and chloroplasts
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free living cells, but they joined larger prokaryotic cells in a symbiotic relationship.
  68. Catastrophism
    Major changes in the past were caused by catastophies
  69. Uniformitarianism:
    Mechanisms are constant over a period of time
  70. Lamarck's Hypothesis
    Parts of the body that are used survive. Others deteriorate.
  71. Gametic Isolation
    Sperm of one egg may not be able to fertilize the sperm of another egg
  72. Relative Fitness

    Example: One Individual
    Contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of next generation, relative to the contributions of the gene pool from the next generation.
  73. Hybrid Zone
    Region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry.
  74. Adaptive Radiation
    Evolutionary change in which many groups of organisms form many species whose adaptations allow them to fill many niches.
  75. Eras:

    Cenozoic
    Mesozoic
    Paleozoic
    • Age of mammals
    • Age of reptiles
    • Transition from ocean to land
  76. Eons:

    Archaen
    Proterozoic
    Phanerozoic
    • 3.8 billion years ago eukaryotes or prokaryotes
    • 2.3 billion years ago
    • 500 million to present-current life

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