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The binding of one ligand increases the affinity of a molecule for that ligand
What is the non-cellular matrix of the blood?
What are Albumins, globulins, and fibrinogens?
- Albumins: Proteins made from the liver that stabilize osmolarity, act as nonspecific binding proteins, and buffer pH
- globulins: WBC/plasma cells that come from the liver and other organs. They serve specific functions depending on their role, e.g they can transport hormones or act as immune cells.
- Fibrinogen: participates in hemostasis during hemorrhage.
Name the three polymorphonuclear granulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Name the three types of Leukocytes
Monocytes, lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear granulocytes
What is the similarity between platelets and fibrinogens?
They both serve to cause hemostasis
List the three steps of hemostasis and where it usually occurs
- occurs usually in arterioles
- 1. after hemorrhage the arteriole constricts to reduce blood flow
- 2. platelets aggregate at site of hemorrhage making a platelet plug
- 3. Fibrinogen becomes fibrin and undergoes coagulation to make a clot
What is hemocrit and it's value?
Hemocrit: the percentage of blood volume that is RBC
What is hematopoiesis?
Creation of red blood cells. Occurs in bone marrow
Erythropoietin is what and does what
A hormone secreted from the kidney and liver that stimulates RBC creation
Name the 6 types of anemia
- 1. Hemorrhagic anemia
- 2. Iron-deficient anemia
- 3. Sickle-cell anemia
- 4. Vitamin-deficient anemia
- 5. Pernicious anemia - inability to absorb dietary Vit B12 at normal rates
- 6. polycythemia - too many RBC
What is the respiratory quotient?
The ratio of CO2/O2 exchanged
normally 40/50 = .8
Name the upper airways, conducting zone, and respiratory zone.
- upper airway: Nostril to larynx
- conducting zone: larynx to terminal bronchioles
- respiratory zone: respiratory bronchioles to alveoli
What is a type I and type II cell?
Type I: allows for exchange of O2 and CO2 with blood
Type II: secretes a phospholipid-protein molecule that acts as a surfactant to reduce water surface tension
Two definitions of respiration
- 1. cellular energy metabolism
- 2. O2 and CO2 exchange
What are the 4 primary functions of blood?
- 1. gas transport
- 2. nutrient transport
- 3. waste transport
- 4. homeostasis
The average adult has ___L of blood
What is the normal WBC concentration in the blood?
What is the normal platelet count in the blood?
What is the normal RBC concentration in blood?
4.8 million RBC/uL
Name the factors that alter the blood dissociation curve.
- Increase in T, [CO2], [DPG], or a decrease in pH will shift the curve to the right due to a decrease in affinity for O2 by hemoglobin. The opposite will shift the graph left
Why is [HCO3] and [CO2] more important than [O2]?
Because HCO3 and CO2 are important in maintaining pH
What is the functional unit of the lung?
What are the general functions of the respiratory system?
- 1. gas exchange
- 2. moistening of air
- 3. vocalization (phonation)
- 4. acid-base balance
- 5. trap and dissolve small blood clots
What 4 things affect resistance for breathing.
- 1. constriction
- 2. dilation
- 3. obstruction
- 4. mucous
How do you calculate the minute ventilation rate?
MVR (mL/min) = tidal volume x respiratory rate
What is anatomical dead space?
The air that exists from the external nares to the trachea that is not used in respiration, but just sits there. AKA the volume of air that doesn't reach the respiration zone
Alveolar ventilation rate equation?
AVR = (tidal volume - anat. dead space) x respiration rate
Difference between anatomical dead space and alveolar dead space.
- Anatomical dead space, the air never reaches the respiration zone
- Alveolar dead space, air is in the respiration zone, but poor circulation at the alveoli prevents the use of that air.
Give the composition of air.
N2 (78.1%) O2 (20.9%) CO2 (.04%) inert gasses (.93%)
What do the medulla oblongata and pons do for respiration? and what do they respond to?
They involuntarily control voluntary neurons and regulate breathing. They respond to changes in [H] and [CO2] from peripheral and central chemoreceptors.
A boy decides to see how long he can hold his breath. What is happening to his pH? what is this phenomenon called? how will the body respond?
pH is decreasing, acidosis, respiratory compensation by causing him to hyperventilate to get rid of excess CO2
During exercise what changes in the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood levels?
oxygenated: no change
deoxygenated: lower O2 higher CO2
Name the 4 types of hypoxia
- 1. hypoxic hypoxia
- 2. anemic hypoxia
- 3. ischemic hypoxia
- 4. histotoxic hypoxia
When humans dive underwater, we have an instinctive urge to hold our breath. This reflex is called
Bradycardia is what and if produced when ___?
The slowing down of the heart rate. When an animal dives and it is a classical reflex arc that triggers to conserve O2 levels.