Physics lecture: simple harmonic motion, waves and light

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msmit458
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Physics lecture: simple harmonic motion, waves and light
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2013-05-16 15:26:40
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simple harmonic motion waves light
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simple harmonic motion, waves and light
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  1. Define sound waves
    vibrations of longitudinal(repeating patterns of motion) sound waves or some other medium.
  2. Sound waves in the air
    pressure waves that move back and forth, producing a series of compression (high pressure) and rarefactions(low pressure) to produce a longitudinal sound wave.

    vibrations of particles of a medium
  3. Compression
    regions of high air pressures
  4. rarefaction
    regions of low air pressure
  5. wavelenghths
    a disturbance of a medium that comes from a distance and travels in one complete wave cycle.
  6. transverse wave
    the measurement of one wave crest to the next adjacent wave crest. vibrations are perpendicular to the direction of motion.

    looks like roller coaster track.

    ex. water waves or sting waves
  7. Light
    • light is known as an electromagnetic wave
    • light does not require a medium
    • light is a transverse wave
  8. longitudinal waves
    repeating patterns of compression and rarefactions. vibrations are in the direction of motion.

    looks like a spring

    ex. 

    sound waves
  9. ***speed of sound***

    Pressure waves
    • repeating patterns of high and low pressures 
    • (compresions and rarefactions)
  10. High pressures in pressure waves
    the arrival of a compression
  11. low pressures in pressure waves
    the arrival of a rarefaction.
  12. ***frequency of sound***

    Frequency
    refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate when a wave passes through.
  13. Frequency of a wave
    a number of complete back and forth vibrations of a particles through a medium per unit of time.

    ex. F=1HZ/time
  14. Harmonic motion
    • the periodic motion of a motion that repeats itself
    • A restoring force is responsible for the periodic motion
    • Restoring force is proportional to the displacement
  15. Hooke's law
    For certain springs, the amount of force is directly proportional to the amount of stretch or compression (x); the constant of proportionality is known as the spring constant (k).

    Fspring=-Kx

    If a spring is not stretched or compressed, then there is no elastic potential energy stored in it.
  16. wave properties
    wave transport energy

    • high waves----high energy
    • low waves---low energy
  17. intensity of a wave depends of the amplitude
    • high intensity sound wave are loud
    • high intensity light are bright
  18. wave speed
    speed of all waves depends on the frequency and wavelength

    • v=speed
    • ;= wavelength
    • t=period
    • f=frequency
  19. sound waves
    the propagation of longitudinal waves of high compressions and regions of rarefactions

    ex. tuning forks form longitudinal waves
  20. sound spectrum
    sound spectrum has few frequencies and can be divided into three frequency regions.

    • infrasonic f<20hz
    • audible, 20hz<f<20khz
    • ultrasonic, f>20khz
  21. Longitudinal sound waves
    sound is a longitudinal wave that is created by a vibrating object.  It can be created or transformed only in a medium and cannot exist in a vacuum
  22. Condensation
    a region of increased pressure (a compressed spring)
  23. rarefaction
    a region of released pressure.

    the production of an inward motion when the air pressure is slightly less than normal
  24. frequency of a sound wave
    is the number of cycles per second that passes by a given location.
  25. pure tone
    a sound with a single frequency


    ex. telephone push buttons
  26. sound intensity
    the amount of energy transported per second by a sound wave is called the power of the wave and is measured in SI units of joules per second or watts
  27. sound intensity and distance
    intensity decreases with distance from the source (I/r2)
  28. sound intensity
    the sound power P that passes perpendicularly through a surface divided by the area A of that surface.

    I=P/A

    SI units of sound intensity is power per unit area or W/m2
  29. spherically uniform radiation
    the sound source at the center of the sphere emits sound uniformly in all directions.

    I=P/4TTr2
  30. Decibel scale
    a decibel is a unit in measuring the sound intensity level

    greater intensities give rise to louder sounds,but doubling the intensity does not double the loudness.
  31. doppler effect when sound approaches
    the apparent change in frequency resulting from the relative motion of the source and the observer as sound approaches (higher frequency) or high wave lengths
  32. doppler effect as sound leaves
    the doppler effect for sound is recognized as a change in pitch when the sound is moving away (lower frequency) or low wavelength.
  33. doppler effects in lights
    the doppler effect for light leads to a change in color.
  34. sources standing still
    refers to an object with sound that is not moving will have the same condensation (loudness waves)
  35. sources that are moving
    refers to an object with sound is moving toward a person the wavelength will get smaller

    wave length moving away from a person, the wavelength becomes larger apart

    lambda '= lambda-VsT
  36. sources moving toward a stationary observer
    Fo=V/lamda'= v/lambda-VsT

    fo=fs(1/1-vs/v)
  37. source moving away from stationary observer
    lambda'=lambda+VsT

    Fo=V/lamda'= v/lambda-VsT

    fo=fs(1/1+vs/v)

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