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  1. breeder selection
    • genetics
    • productivity
    • disease soundness (brucellosis status)
    • soundness
  2. natural cover
    one bull per 30 cows.

    (most beef breeds)
  3. artificial ejaculate
    may be used to inseminate hundreds of cows

    (most dairy breeds)
  4. breeding season
  5. scrotum
    saclike portion of the male reproductive system that remains outside of the body, contains the testicles and epididymis
  6. 3 types of tissue that make up the scrotum
    • skin
    • tunica dartos
    • tunica vaginalis
  7. tunica vaginalis
    tissue that forms the pocket around the testicles once they have descended from the abdominal cavity
  8. tunica dartos
    muscle tissue responsible for raising and lowering the testicles in response to temperature 
  9. cryptorchidism
    if one of both of the testicles do not descend and are held within the body cavity

    (animal may also be called a ridgeling or ridgel)
  10. testicles
    sperm and testosterone producing organs of the male reproductive system
  11. seminiferous tubules
    produce sperm cells
  12. Leydig cells
    produce testosterone 
  13. testosterone
    hormone responsible for masculine appearance 
  14. epididymis
    long coiled tube connected to each of the testicles
  15. sperm cells reside here for maturation and storage until ejaculation
  16. what happens to cells that do not leave the epididymis at ejaculation?
    reabsorbed by the body
  17. urethra
    tube that carries urine from the bladder

    (in the male semen is also moved through here)
  18. components of semen
    • sperm cells
    • other fluids excreted from accessory glands
  19. accessory glands involved in excretion of semen
    • seminal vesicles
    • prostate gland
    • Cowper's glands
  20. seminal vesicles
    • open out into the urethra
    • produce a fluid that transports and protects the sperm
  21. prostate gland
    • located near urethra and bladder
    • produces a fluid that is mixed with seminal fluid
  22. Cowper's glands
    produce a fluid that travels down the urethra ahead of the seminal fluid to help clean and neutralize the urethra, protecting the sperm as it travels
  23. penis
    organ that deposits the semen into the reproductive tract of the female
  24. cavernosum
    spongy tissue that surrounds the urethra and fills with blood when the male is aroused causing the erection necessary for copulation
  25. sigmoid flexure
    extends the penis from the sheath

    (in bulls, rams, boars)
  26. retractor muscle
    helps to bring the penis back inside the sheath after copulation
  27. bull semen collection
    • artificial vagina (sperm catcher on end)
    • electroejaculator (rectal probe)
  28. semen evalutation
    • macroscopic- color, volume, consistency
    • microscopically- motility, morphology, concentration
  29. the 2 female sex hormones
    • estrogen
    • progesterone 
  30. female sex cells
    eggs or ova
  31. responsible for producing the eggs
  32. labia majora
    external folds of vulva
  33. labia minors
    internal folds of vuvla
  34. clitoris
    sensory and erectile organ of female
  35. estrus
    period of time that the female is receptive to the male for breeding
  36. estrus signs in cattle
    • standing when mounted by another cow
    • nervousness
    • swelling of the vulva
    • inflamed appearance around lips of vulva
    • frequent urination
    • mucus discharge from vulva
    • trying to mount other cattle
  37. produces the hormone progesterone
    corpus luteum
  38. progesterone
    hormone of pregnancy
  39. progesterone causes these 4 things to happen
    • fertilized egg implanted on uterus
    • other eggs stopped from forming
    • pregnant condition is maintained
    • mammary glands begin to develop
  40. fetilization
    union of the sperm and egg
  41. sperm last for approximately
    24-30 hours in the female reproductive tract

    (egg cell 12 hours)
  42. gestation
    time during which the animal is pregnant

    (285 days; around 9 months)
  43. blood vessels in umbilical cord responsible for
    • transport of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus
    • removing wastes from the fetus
  44. Stage 1 of parturition
    near the end of gestation, the corpus luteum begins to reduce and produce less progesterone and thus..

    leads to increase of estrogen in body which causes uterine muscles to contract, beginning the process of birth.

    2-6 hrs
  45. Stage 2 of parturition
    • water breaks
    • second water bag containing fetus breaks
    • fetus emerges forelimbs and nose first

    30 min-4 hrs
  46. Stage 3 of parturition
    afterbirth is expelled

    8-12 hours
  47. parturition assistance
    • dystocia
    • first calf heifer
    • disproportionate bull/cow size ratio
    • brucellosis status
    • caesarean section
  48. instruments used for dystocia
    • obstetrical chains/ropes
    • obstetrical forceps
    • hercules fetal extractor
  49. reproductive failures
    • uterine infections
    • cysts on reproductive organs
    • cryptorchidism (in male)
    • uterine prolapse
Card Set:
2013-04-04 05:22:06

Food animal
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