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What are the basic principles of ecology?
- The system of ecology contains a network of interrelated parts biotic [living] & abiotic [non living]
- It controls energy & nutrient flows
What are some of the consequences of oil spills?
[a single gallon of oil can create an oil slick a couple of acres in size]
- ALL aspects of marine & shore environments affected
- ~spreads quickly w/ wind & currents
- ~poisons algae beds in waterway sysytems
- ~oil+H2O = 'mousse' a sticky clingy substance
- ~marine animals don't KNOW to avoid it
- ~fish ATTRACTED because looks like food
- ~once gone remains in sea beds/beaches for
- ~creates a cycle of poisoning in food chain/web for years
Specific effects of oil spills on birds?
- oil breaks down feather's insulating capabilities = hypothermia & drowning
- weighs them down so they can't fly
- thinner egg shells = reduction in population
Specific affects on animals and marine mammals?
- damages seal pup fur insulating abilities = hypothermia
- damages immune system
- thinner turtle egg
- remains in sea bed & under beaches affecting burrowing crabs, etc
- deforms fish larvae
What does WHO stand for and what do they do?
- World Health Organization
- specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned w/ international public health. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters,
- shaping health research agenda, setting norms & standards
What does EPA stand for and what do they do?
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Their mission is to protect human health and the environment. The EPA contributes to making our communities and ecosystems diverse, sustainable and economically productive. Create federal laws protecting human health & the environment; ensures they're enforced fairly and effectively.
What is a Green Zone?
A natural habitat [undeveloped] that acts a s an environmental buffer zone between factories and communities and also offers places of leisure. They alternate with areas of industry to create diversity overall.
Whose responsibility is it to protect the environment and how can it be achieved?
Protecting the environment is everyone's responsibility, & starts w/ educating ourselves & understanding the issues. The basics include reducing how much energy & materials you use; reduce, reuse, recycle. EPA doesn't protect the environment on their own, they work w/ businesses, non-profit organizations, & state and local governments through dozens of partnerships.
What are some of the current issues & concerns of the EPA?
- ~conserving water & energy
- ~minimizing greenhouse gases
- ~re-using solid waste [sewage treatment plant]
- ~getting a handle on pesticide risks
What is the mission of the Ohio EPA
- to protect the environment & public health by ensuring compliance w/ environmental laws/rules & demonstrate leadership in environmental stewardship
What is Environmental Stewardship?
Environmental stewardship refers to responsible use & protection of the natural environment through conservation & sustainable practices.
What does the Ohio EPA do?
- ~establishes & enforces standards for air, water, waste management & cleanup of sites contaminated w/ hazardous substances. ~provide financial assistance to businesses/communities
- ~education programs for businesses/public ~pollution prevention assistance to help businesses minimize their waste at the source.
What does anthropogenic mean?
- caused or produced by humans
What are some of the main causes of human [anthropogenic] impact on the environment?
- Agriculture [deforestation, runoff, waste]:
- fishing, irrigation, meat production
- Energy Industry [energy harvesting & consumption of fossil fuel resources = global warming]:biodiesel, coal mining/burning, electricity generation, nuclear power, oil shale, petroleum, reservoirs
cleaning products, paint, paper, pesticides
erosion, sinkhole formation, loss of biodiversity, contamination of soil & ground /surface water by chemicals from mining processes
[major user of energy; burns most of world's petroleum] aviation, roads, shipping
What are the main effects of the human impact on the environment?
- Biodiversity [humans have caused the extinction of many species]
- Coral reefs coral mining, pollution (organic and non-organic), overfishing, blast fishing, digging of canals & access into islands/bays
- Nitrogen cycle Agricultural/industrial Nitrogen inputs [humans = 1/3 N2O] to environment currently exceed inputs from natural N fixation. Consequence = global nitrogen cycle significantly altered over past century
What does the US Fish & Wildlife Services
administer the Endangered Species Act (ESA), take the lead in recovering & conserving the Nation's endangered species
Why is excess CO2 such an issue?
The rate at which we are creating the excess CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere from industrialization, deforestation, & pollution is at a higher rate than plants & oceans can absorb it so = uneven balance.
Will Global Warming stop if we completely eliminate CO2 emissions?
NO it'll stay in Earth's atmosphere for years so it's important to not just eliminate and/or reduce the emissions but to create long term solutions & options for sustainable renewable clean energy alternatives
What are some of the major sources of anthropogenic climate changing Greenhouse Gases & contributions to Global Warming?
Greenhouse Gases are created by burning fossil fuels [49%], making cement, burning forests & grasslands [14%] & other human activities [anthropegenic]such as agriculture [13%, & industrial processes [24%]
What are some ways we can control Greenhouse emissions?
- ~substitute Natural Gas for coal
- ~promote energy efficiency
- ~use Renewable Energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and fuel cells
- ~explore options to capture & store CO2
- ~Plant more trees & allow them to reach maturity
- ~Use farmland as a carbon sink
What is recycling?
Recycling is a process to change materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials. Reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) & water pollution (from landfilling) by reduce the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production
What is a carbon sink?
- A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates & stores CO2. They remove CO2 from atmosphere by carbon sequestration.Natural: photosynthesis, absorbed by oceans
- Artificial: garbage dumps & landfills
What is compost and what is it used for?
organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil. Measured inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. Used in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, and agriculture. In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion control, land & stream reclamation, wetland construction, & as landfill cover. Organic ingredients intended for composting can also be used to generate biogas.
What 4 equally important things are required for composting to work effectively?
- Carbon — for energy; the microbial oxidation of carbon produces the heat [the materials tend to be brown and dry]
- Nitrogen — to grow and reproduce more organisms to oxidize the carbon[the materials tend to be green (or colorful, such as fruits and vegetables) and wet]
- Oxygen — for oxidizing the carbon, the decomposition process.
- Water — in the right amounts to maintain activity
What is Sustainable Energy?
Sustainable energy is the sustainable provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
What technologies promote sustainable energy?
Technologies that promote sustainable energy include renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectricity,solar energy, wind energy, wave power, geothermal energy, and tidal power,
What is Thermal Inversion?
- heating fuels made from compressed biomass - substitute for burning wood especially in developing countries
Developing country or LDC [Less Developed Country]
- a country that is poor and whose citizens are mostly agricultural workers but that wants to be more advanced socially & economically - Brazil, India, China, Iraq, Korea
- *low standard of living
- *low economy
- *fewer factories and industry
Developed Country or MDC [More Developed Country]
- *high standard of living
- *highly developed economy
- *advanced technology
- *lots of industry/factories
- USA, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, & South Korea.
Gas commonly released at the surface of landfills, can be collected & used as fuel or piped to local factories to be burned in boilers to produce heat. Also produced on smaller scale by human, animal, and food wastes.
Used in power station chimneys to absorb SO2 . They produce lots of Limestone waste which is a good fertilizer.the USA produces enough of this waste to fertilize 25% of the country's farmland
turning an area into a desert, with low plant cover and a high risk of erosion
Systems of wires to carry electricity