Test 2

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Test 2
2010-05-29 11:25:10
Chemistry EKU Chapters

Chemistry McMurry and Fay Fifth Edition
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  1. Acid
    A substance that provides H+ ions in water
  2. Anion
    A negitively charged atom or group of atoms

    Ex. Cl-
  3. Atom
    The smallest particle that retainsthe chemical properties of an element.
  4. Atomic Mass
    The weighted average mass of an element's naturally occurring atoms.
  5. Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
    A convenient unit of mass
  6. atomic # (Z)
    the # of protons in atom's nucleus
  7. base
    a substance that provides OH- ions which disovle in water
  8. cation
    a positively charged atom or group of atoms
  9. chemical bond
    force that holds atoms together in chemical compounds
  10. chemical compound
    a pure substance that is formed when atoms of two or more differnt elements combine in a specific way to create a new material w/ properties completely unlike those of its constituent elements
  11. chemical equation
    a format for writing a chemical reaction, listing reactant on left, products on right, an arrow inbetween them.
  12. chemical reaction
    the transformation of one substanace into another
  13. covalent bond
    a bond that occurs when 2 atoms share several, usualy 2, electrons
  14. electron
    a negatively charged fundamental atomic particle
  15. heterogeneous mixture
    a mix having regions w/ diff. compositions
  16. homogeneous mixture
    a mix having a consitent composition throughout
  17. ion
    a charged atom or group of atoms
  18. ionic bond
    a bond that results from a transfer of one or electrons between atoms
  19. ionic solid
    a solid whose constituent particles are ions ordered into a regular three-D arrangement, held together by ionic bonds
  20. isotope
    atoms w/ identical atomic #s but differnt mass #s
  21. law of definite proportiions
    differnt samples of a pure chemical substance always contain the same proportion of elements by mass
  22. law of mass conservation
    mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions
  23. law of multiple proportions
    when 2 elements combine in diff. ways to form diff. substances, the mass ratios are small ,whole #, multiples of one another
  24. mass # (A)
    total # of protons and neutrons in an atom. = to # protons (z) plus # neutrons (n)
  25. mixture
    a blend of 2 or more substances in some arbitray proportion
  26. molecule
    unit of matter that results when 2 or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
  27. neutron
    a nuetral, funadamental atomic particle in the neucleus of atoms
  28. neucleus
    the central core of an atom consisting of protons and neutrons
  29. oxoacid
    an acid that contains Oxygen, Hydrogen and another element
  30. oxoanion
    an anion of an oxoaacid
  31. polyatomic ion
    a charged, covalently bonded group of atoms
  32. proton
    a positely charged, fundamental atomic particle in neucleus of atoms
  33. structural formula
    a representation that shows the specific connections between atoms in a molecule
  34. prefixes 1-10
    • 1) mono
    • 2) di
    • 3) tri
    • 4)tetra
    • 5) penta
    • 6) hexa
    • 7) pepta
    • 8) octa
    • 9)nona
    • 10) deca
  35. ammonium
    NH4+ (cation)
  36. acetate
  37. cyanide
  38. hypochlorite
  39. chlorite
  40. chlorate
  41. perchlorate
  42. dihydrogen phosphate
  43. hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
  44. hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate)
  45. hydroxide
  46. permanganate
  47. nitrite
  48. nitrate
  49. carbonate
  50. chromate
  51. dichromate
  52. peroxide
  53. hydrogen phosphate
  54. sulfite
  55. sulfate
  56. thiosulfate
  57. phosphate
  58. Avogadro's # ( N subscript A)
    the # of units in a mole; 6.022 X 10^23
  59. Avogadro's Law
    the volume of a gas at a fixed pressure and temperature is proportional to its moler amount.
  60. balance
    a chemical equation in which the #s and kinds of atoms are the same on both sides of the reation arrow
  61. coefficient
    a# placed before a formula in a chemical equation to indicate how many formula units are required to balance teh equation
  62. empirical formula
    a formula that gives the rations of atoms in a chemical compound
  63. formula mass
    sum of atomic masses of all atoms in one formula unit of a substance
  64. formula units
    one unit (atom, iton, or mole) corresponding to a given formula
  65. limiting reactants
    the reactant present in liminting amount that controls the extent to which a reaction occurs
  66. molear mass
    the mass of one mol of a substance; = to molecular or formula mass of substance in grams
  67. molarity (M)
    a common unit of concentration; the # of moles of solute per liter of solution
  68. mole (mol)
    the SI unit for amount of substance; the qunatity of a substance that contains as many molecules or formula units as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of C12
  69. molecular formula
    a formula that tells identity and #s of atoms in a molecule
  70. molecular mass
    the sum of atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule
  71. Percent composition
    a list of elements present in a compound and the mass % of each
  72. Percent yield
    the amount of product actualy formed in a reaction divided by the amount theoretical possible and multiply by 100
  73. solute
    the dissolved substance in a solution
  74. stoichiometry
    mole/mass relationship between reactants and products
  75. titration
    a procedure for determining the concetration of a solution
  76. Yield
    amount of product formed in a reaction
  77. pure substance
    two things: elements and chemical components.
  78. mixtures
    solutions-sub micrscopic, homo

    colloids-microscopic, hetero

    suspension-muddy river water is an example
  79. atom (meaning)
    latin term for "indivisible"
  80. atom (class definition)
    classic building blocks of chemical substances-a single discrete entity
  81. elements
    basic building blocks of chemical substances- several of the same type of atom
  82. molecule (class definition)
    two or more atoms joined together by chemical bond
  83. electricly neutral
    same # of protons in neucleus as electrons in the electronic cloud
  84. john dalton
    • father of modern chemistry. 1850. dalton's hypotehsis of atoms of atoms and molecules:
    • 1) all elements are composed of atoms, atoms of one element are all the same but diff. from atoms of other elements.
    • 2) each element is characterized by mass of its atoms
    • 3) elements combine in whole # ratios to form molecules and compounds (proust's law and law of multiple proportions)
    • 4) chemical reactions scramble the atoms that are bonded together but they do not change the fundamental identity of atoms (same elements on the reactants as the products)
  85. democritus
    1440 BC father of ancient atomic hypothesis
  86. Hydrogen Isotopes (3)
    • Z A #of n(A-Z) #of e amu Name symbol
    • Hydrogen-1 1 1 0 1 1.0 Hydrogen H
    • Hydrogen-2 1 2 1 1 2.0 Deuterium D
    • Hydrogen-3 1 3 2 1 3.0 Tritum T