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How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in the following?
1.
2.
3.
1. 12 P, 12 N, and 12 e^{}.
2. 29 P, 34 N, and 27 e^{}.
3. 17 P, 18 N, and 18 e.

What are valence electrons?
The electrons farthest from the nucleus, as well as any electrons available for bonding, are the valence electrons.

(T/F) One amu is equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon12 atom.
True.

How many particles are in a mole (mol)?
1 mol = 6.022 x 10^{23} particles.
Avogadro's Number.

What is atomic weight?
The atomic weight of an element reflects the number of grams per mole (g/mol) of the element. The atomic weight is usually derived from a weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element.

What is an isotope?
An isotope is a different form of the same element due to a different number if neutrons.

How many more protons are in a carbon14 atom than in a carbon12 atom?
None.
Carbon12 and carbon14 are isotopes. They thus have the same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons.

What is an atomic emission spectrum?
An atomic emission spectrum is the unique spectrum of light emitted when an atom's electrons fall to their ground states.

What is an atomic absorption spectrum?
An atomic absorption spectrum is the unique spectrum of light absorbed when an atom's electrons are excited to higher energy levels.

Define the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to know both the momentum and position of an electron at the same time.

Define the Pauli exclusion principle.
The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.

What does the principle (1st) quantum number (n) represent?
The principle (1st) quantum number (n) is an integer which represents the shell (energy level) of an electron.

What is the maximum number of electrons allowed in the second shell (n=2)?
The maximum number of electrons in the second shell is eight. (The maximum number of electrons in any shell equals 2n_{2.})_{}

What does the azimuthal (2nd) quantum number (l) represent?
The azimuthal (2nd) quantum number (l) represents the subshell.

What are the first four subshells (corresponding to l = 0, 1, 2, and 3)?
The first four subshells are: s, p, d, and f.

What is the formula for the maximum number of electrons allowed in a subshell?
Maximum number of electrons in a subshell = (4l + 2).

What does the magnetic (3rd) quantum number (m_{l }) represent?
The third quantum number (m_{l }) represents an orbital within a subshell.
The possible values range from l to l._{}

How many orbitals can each subshell accommodate?
The number of orbitals in each subshell are all integers from l to  l.

How many fourth quantum numbers (m_{s}) are possible for an electron?
What are they?
The two possible values for m_{s} are +1/2 and 1/2.

What is Hund's Rule?
Hund's Rule states that electrons will fill to create the maximum number of halffilled orbitals.

Which subshell will fill first?
5s or 3d?
3d will before 5s.
Note: Compare (n + l) values. The lower the sum has lower energy. If the sums are equal, the subshell with the lower n value will fill first.

Which subshell will fill first?
6s or 4f?
6s will fill before 4f.
Note: Compare (n + l) values. The lower the sum has lower energy. If the sums are equal, the subshell with the lower n value will fill first.

Which subshell will fill first?
4p or 3d?
3d will fill before 4p.
Note: Compare (n + l) values. The lower the sum has lower energy. If the sums are equal, the subshell with the lower n value will fill first.

What is a paramagnetic material?
A paramagnetic material has unpaired electrons.

What is a diamagnetic material?
A diamagnetic material has no unpaired electrons.

