Biology Flashcards - Cell Metabolism

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awc1990
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211240
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Biology Flashcards - Cell Metabolism
Updated:
2013-04-03 17:00:29
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Biology Flashcards Cell Metabolism
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Biology Flashcards - Cell Metabolism Kaplan MCAT B35-B42
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  1. What is an anabolic process?
    An anabolic process is a reaction that builds complex molecules and requires energy.
  2. What is a catabolic process?
    A catabolic process is a reaction that breaks down complex molecules and releases energy.
  3. What is an autotroph?
    An autotroph is an organism that can harness sunlight to create energy via photosynthesis. (e.g. plants).
  4. What is a heterotroph?
    A heterotroph is an organism that breaks down organic nutrients for energy.
  5. What are the energy carrier molecules for a cell's metabolic processes?
    ATP, NAD+, NADP+, and FAD.
  6. How do ATP, NAD+, NADP+, and FAD store energy?
    ATP stores energy in its high-energy phophate bonds.

    NAD+, NADP+ and FAD store energy in high-potential electrons.
  7. Does oxidation result in the loss or gain of electrons?
    Oxidation refers to the loss of electrons.
  8. What happens to the number of electrons when a reactant gets reduced?
    Reduction results in the gain of electrons.
  9. (T/F) An oxidizing agent gets oxidized during a reaction.
    False, an oxidizing agent gets reduced and thereby causes another molecule to be oxidized.
  10. What is the net reaction for glycolysis?
    Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ --> 2Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ +2H2O
  11. (T/F) Glycolysis results in substrate level phosphorylation of ADP.
    True
  12. Is glycolysis an aerobic or anaerobic process?
    Glycolysis is an anaerobic process.
  13. What are the possible products of fermentation?
    • The products of fermentation are either ethanol or lactic acid. 
  14. When does a cell rely on fermentation for its energy needs?
    A cell utilizes fermentation in an anaerobic (oxygen deficient) environment.
  15. What is the net gain in ATP from cellular respiration?
    Eukaryotes = 36 ATP

    Prokaryotes = 38 ATP
  16. (T/F) Cellular respiration requires aerobic conditions.
    True.
  17. What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
    The three stages of cellular respiration are:

    • 1. Pyruvate decarboxylation
    • 2. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
    • 3. Electron Transport Chain
  18. (T/F) During pyruvate decarboxylation, a moleculre of CO2 is lost, leaving acetyl CoA.
    True.
  19. One molecule of glucose requires how many turns of the citric acid cycle?
    The citric acid cycle (TCA) completes two cycles (turns) per molecule of glucose.
  20. How many ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are created in one turn of the citric acid cycle?
    • 1 GTP
    • 3 NADH
    • 1 FADH2
  21. What is a cytochrome?
    A cytochrome is a molecular electron carrier involved in oxidative phosphorylation.
  22. When and where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
    Oxidative phosphorylation occurs at the inner mitochondrial membrane during the electron transport stage of cellular respiration.
  23. Does the electron transport chain require oxygen?
    Yes, the final acceptor of the electrons is O2, which then forms water.
  24. (T/F) The electron transport chain generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
    True.
  25. Where does glycolysis occur?
    Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm.
  26. Where does the citric acid cycle occur?
    The citric acid cycle occurs in the inner mitochondrial matrix.
  27. (T/F) If glucose is unavailable, the body can use carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to create energy.
    True. Gluconeogenesis.

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