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Order the following embryonic stages:
blastula, neurula, morula, gastrula, zygote
zygote, morula, blastula, gastrula, neurula.
What is differentiation?
Differentiation is the specialization of cells that occurs during development.
What are the 3 primary germ layers?
Endoderm, Mesoderm, and Extoderm
What is induction?
Induction is the influence of a group of cells upon the differentiation of another group of cells.
Match the following structures with the stage of development in which they first appear:
1. Inner cell mass a. Blastula
2. Archenteron b. Gastrula
3. Notochord c. Neurula
6. Neural fold
- 1. a (Inner cell mass/Blastula)
- 2. b (Archenteron/Gastrula)
- 3. c (Notochord/Neurula0)
- 4. a (Trophoblast/Blastula)
- 5. b (Blastopore/Gastrula)
- 6. c (Neural fold/Neurula)
What structures arise from ectoderm?
Ectoderm - integument, lens of the eye, and nervous system.
What structures arise from the endoderm?
Endoderm - epithelial linings of digestive and respiratory tracts, parts of liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder.
What structures arise from the mesoderm?
Mesoderm - Musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, connective tissue, excretory system, and gonads.
(T/F) The placenta and umbilical cord are responsible for fetal respiration, nutrition, and waste removal.
(T/F) Adult hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than fetal hemoglobin.
False, fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen.
What is the function of the ductus venosus?
The ductus venosus shunts blood away from the fetal liver.
What is the function of the foramen ovale?
The foramen ovale diverts blood away from the pulmonary arteries and into the left atrium.
What is the function of the ductus arteriosus?
The ductus arteriosus shunts blood directly from the pulmonary artery into the aorta.
In what trimester does the fetal heart begin to beat?
The heart begins to beat in the first trimester.
In what trimester do the skeleton and organs form?
The skeleton and organs are formed during the first trimester.
(T/F) The allantois and yolk sac form the basis of the umbilical cord.
From what structures does the placenta originate?
The placenta originates from the chorion.