Biology Flashcards - Musculoskeletal

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awc1990
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211243
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Biology Flashcards - Musculoskeletal
Updated:
2013-04-03 16:59:47
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Biology Flashcards Musculoskeletal
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Biology Flashcards - Musculoskeletal Kaplan MCAT B55-B63
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  1. What are the functions of the skeleton?
    The functions of the skeleton are physical support, protection of delicate organs (e.g., brain), sourse of blood cells (e.g., bone marrow).
  2. What are the two major components of the skeleton?
    The major components of the skeleton are cartilage and bone.
  3. Which type of cells secrete cartilaginous tissue?
    Chondrocytes secrete cartilaginous tissue.
  4. What are the two types of bone?
    The two types of bone are compact bone and spongy bone.
  5. What is periosteum?
    The periosteum is the fibrous sheath of a bone.
  6. What is the function of an osteoclast?
    Osteoclasts are involved in bone reabsorption.
  7. What is the function of osteoblast?
    Osteoblasts are involved in bone formation.
  8. Name the following components of an osteon (Haversian system): 




    • 1. Lamellae.
    • 2. Osteon.
    • 3. Canaliculi.
    • 4. Lacuna.
    • 5. Haversian Canal.
  9. (T/F) Endochondral ossification is the replacement of cartilage with bone?
    True.
  10. What is intramembranous ossification?
    Intramembranous ossification is the transformation of mesenchymal tissue into bone.
  11. What is the function of a ligament?
    Ligaments connect bone to bone and strengthen joints.
  12. What is synovial fluid?
    Synovial fluid is a lubricant found in movable joints.
  13. What are the three distinct types of muscle in mammals?
    The three types of muscle are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
  14. What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
    The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a modified endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ions (in a muscle cell).
  15. (T/F) Within a sarcomere, thick filaments are made of actin and thin filaments are made of myosin.
    False, thin filaments are made of actin and thick filaments are made of myosin.
  16. Name the following parts of a sarcomere:




    • 1. Z line¬†
    • 2. H zone
    • 3. I band
    • 4. M line
    • 5. A band
  17. During contraction, what happens to the width of the A-band?
    The A band is always of constant width.
  18. During contraction, what happens to the H zone and I band?
    The H zone and the I band contract and decrease in length.
  19. (T/F) The release of Ca2+ by the sarcoplasmic reticulum initiates muscle contraction.
    True.
  20. (T/F) The sarcoplasmic reticulum must uptake Ca2+ for relaxation to occur.
    True.
  21. (T/F) A muscle fiber exhibits an "all-or-nothing" response.
    True.
  22. Which component of the nervous system innervates smooth muscle?
    Smooth muscle is innervated by the autonomic nervous system.
  23. Which types of muscle are striated?
    Cardiac and skeletal muscle are striated.
  24. Which types of muscle display myogenic activity?
    Cardiac and smooth muscle display myogenic activity.
  25. What is the role of calcium in the initiation of sarcomere contraction?
    Calcium binds with troponin, which causes a conformational shift in tropomysin, expressing the myosin binding site.


  26. Which compound is needed to release myosin from its binding site on acting?
    ATP is needed to release myosin from its bdingin site on actin.

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