Biology Flashcards - Homeostasis

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Biology Flashcards - Homeostasis
2013-04-03 16:51:05
Biology Flashcards Homeostasis

Biology Flashcards - Homeostasis Kaplan MCAT B80-B85
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  1. Define homeostasis.
    The maintenance of a stable internal environment.
  2. What are the primary homeostatic organs in mammals?
    The primary homeostatic organs are the kidneys, liver, large intestine, and skin.
  3. hat are the three regions of a kidney?
    The three regions of a kidney are the pelvis, medulla, and cortex.

  4. (T/F) A nephron is situated such that the loop of Henle runs through the medulla.
  5. Name the following parts of a nephron:

    • 1. Bowman's capsule
    • 2. Proximal convoluted tubule
    • 3. Loop of Henle
    • 4. Descending limb
    • 5. Ascending limb
    • 6. Distal convoluted tubule
    • 7. Collecting duct
  6. What is the primary purpose of the kidney?
    The primary purpose of the kidneys is to regulate the salt and water concentration in the blood.
  7. Where are the amino acids, glucose, and vitamins reabsorbed in the nephron?
    Amino acids, glucose, and vitamins are reabsorbed into the proximal convoluted tubule.
  8. Where in the loop of Henle does water passively diffuse out?
    Water passively diffuses out of the descending limb.
  9. (T/F) Water passively diffuses into the ascending limb.
    False, the ascending limb is impermeable to water.
  10. (T/F) Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of Na+ and H2O from the distal tubule and collecting duct.
  11. Would high levels of aldosterone result in concentrated or dilute urine?
    High levels of aldosterone result in concentrated urine.
  12. How would low levels of aldosterone affect blood pressure?
    Low levels of aldosterone lead to reduced blood plasma volume and therefore reduced blood pressure.
  13. Would high levels of ADH (vasopressin) result in concentrated or dilute urine?
    High levels of ADH result in concentrated urine.
  14. Where and how does ADH affect the nephron?
    ADH makes the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct more permeable to H2O.
  15. (T/F) Urine leaves the kidney via the ureter and leaves the bladder via the urethra.
  16. Is urine hypertonic or hypotonic to blood?
    Urine is hypertonic to blood.
  17. What are some of the functions of liver?
    Liver functions include regulation of blood glucose, detoxification of toxins, beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and destruction of old red blood cells.
  18. (T/F) The large intestine functions as an excretory organ by getting rid of excess salts.
  19. In which layer of the skin are sweat glands, sense organs, and blood vessels located?
    Sweat glads, sense organs, and blood vessels are located in the dermis.
  20. (T/F) Constriction of blood vessels in the skin leads to decreased body temperature.
    False, constriction of blood vessels in the skin leads to increased body temperature.