Lymphatic System

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Author:
daniellemarie
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211286
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Lymphatic System
Updated:
2013-04-07 14:59:48
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anatomy
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HAPS 7
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  1. what are the functions of the lymphatic system
    • prodcution, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes
    • return fluid and solutes that have excaped the cardiovascular system
    • distribute hormones, nutrients, and waste products from tissues of origin to general circulation
  2. what do lymphocytes respond to the prescence of
    • membrane antigens of invading pathorgens
    • abnormal body cells(virus and cancer)
    • foreign proteins (toxins)
  3. what are the functions of lymph
    • absorption of dietary fats from the small intestine into the lymphatics and from the lympathics into the bloodstream
    • returns most plasma back into the bloodstream
    • transports pathogens to lymph nodes to be destroyed
  4. what is the lymph pathway
    lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, subclavian vein
  5. how does lymph enter the thoracic duct
    lymph from entire left side of body and right side below diaphram enter the cysterna chyli
  6. where does lymph go to after the thoracic duct
    travels through the diaphram, along descending aorta, and empties into the left subclavian vein
  7. where does the thoracic duct originate
    inferior to the diaphram
  8. where does the right lymphatic duct originate
    near the right jugular and subclavian veins
  9. how does lymph enter the right lymphatic duct
    collects lymph from the right side of the body above the diaprham
  10. where does lymph go to after the right lymphatic duct
    right subclavian vein
  11. what are the three type of lymphocytes
    • t cells
    • b cells
    • natural killer cells
  12. what type of immunity are t cells, b cells, and natural killer cells
    specific immunity
  13. what is the most common type of lymphocyte
    t cells
  14. where are t cells found
    • lymph nodes
    • thoracic duct
    • spleen
  15. what are the other names for cytotoxic t cells
    • cytolytic
    • killer t cells
  16. how are cytotoxic t cells activated
    by antigens presented by an body cell
  17. what type of t cell has the speciality of killing virus infected body cells and cancer cells
    cytotoxic t cells
  18. what type of t cells are involved in the rejection of foregin tissue grafts
    cytotoxic t cells
  19. what type of t cell are the primary cells involved with cell mediated immunity/ cellular immunity
    cytotoxic t cells
  20. what are the different types of t cells
    • cytotoxic t cells
    • memory t cells
    • hlper t cells
    • suppressor t cells
  21. what type of t cell are descendents of activated t cells during the inital immune response
    memory t cells
  22. what type of t cell when exposed to the same foregin antigen quickly become cytotoxic and helper cells
    memory t cells
  23. what type of t cells stimulate the activation and function of t and b cells
    helper t cells
  24. what type of t cell secretes cytokines
    helper t cells
  25. what type of t cells inhibit the activation and function of both b and t cells
    suppressor t cells
  26. what is the 2 most common lymphocytes
    b cells
  27. what are the 2 types of b cells
    • memory cell
    • plasma cell
  28. how are b cells stimulated
    by antigen binding and helper t cells
  29. what type of b cell produces antibodies/immunoglobulins
    plasma cell
  30. what are antigens
    • pathogens
    • parts or products of pathogens
    • foregin compounds
  31. what type of b cell is stored in lymph nodes which convert to plasma cells when exposed to a reoccuring pathogen
    memory cell
  32. what type of lymphocytes are responsible for antibody mediated immunity/humoral immunity
    b cells
  33. why are b cells responsible for antibody mediated immunity
    because antibodies are found in body fluids
  34. what are the antibodies that proteins produce by b and plasma cells called
    immunoglobulins
  35. where are immunoglobulins that are produced by the plasma cells released
    into body fluids- blood, lymph, saliva, mucus
  36. what type of lymphocytes attack foregin, virally infected, and cancer cells
    natural killer cells
  37. does the thymus have more b or t cells
    t cells
  38. does circulation have more b or t cells
    t cells 8:1
  39. does the spleen have more t cells or b cells
    same 1:1
  40. does bone marrow have more b cells or t cells
    b cells 3:1
  41. how long do lymphocytes live
    4 years
  42. what type of lymphocytes originate in bone marrow from stem cells called hemocytoblast
    t and b cells
  43. what type of lymphocytes progeny are plasma cells
    b cells
  44. what type of lymphocyte progeny includes suppressor, helper, and killer cells
    t cells
  45. what type of lymphocyte progeny include memory cells
    t and b cells
  46. what type of lymphocytes directly attack foregin cells or virus infected cells
    t cells
  47. what type of lymphocyte produces antibodies that are released to body fluids
    b cells
  48. what type of lymphocyte has cell surface receptor capable of recognizing specific antigen
    t and b cells
  49. what type of lymphocyte forms cones upon stimulation or activation
    t and b cells
  50. what type of lymphoctye accounts for most of the lymphocytes in circulatin
    t cells
  51. what are the nonlymphoctye cells of the lymphatic system
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
    • mast
    • monocytes
    • macrophages
    • cytokines
  52. what nonlymphocyte cell is generally the first cells to leave the blood and enter infected tissues
    neutrophils
  53. what is the primary function of neutrophils
    killing bacteria
  54. how do neutrophils kill bacteria
    • phagocytosis
    • releasing enzymes that make toxic chemicals to bacteria
  55. what nonlymphocyte cell enters tissues from the blood and are phagocytice
    eosinophils
  56. what nonlymphocyte cell releases chemcials reducing inflammation
    eosinophils
  57. where are eosionphils abundant
    mucosa or respiratory, digest, and lower urinary tracts
  58. how do eosionphils destory infections too large for phagocytize
    release enzymes
  59. what nonlymphocyte cell uses the mobility and action of other leukocytes be secreting histamine and heparin
  60. basophils
  61. what chemical is a vasodilator which increases blood flow and speeds the delivery of leukocytes to the area of infection
    histamine
  62. what chemical is an anticagulant which inhibits the formation of blood clots that prevent WBC's from getting to infection site
    heparin
  63. what nonlymphocyte is nonmotile cell that is near blood vessels of connective tissue that releases histamine and heparin
    mast
  64. what nonlymphocyte cell leaves the blood and enters tissues to become a macrophage
    monocytes
  65. what nonlymphocyte cell can be found mobile or fixed throught the entire body and helps activate t and b cells
    macrophages
  66. where are histiocytes found
    loose connective tissue
  67. where are dendritic cells found
    • epidermis
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • vagina
    • lymph
    • organs
    • microglia
  68. what nonlymphocyte cell are small proteins that attack viruses, virally infected cells, and cancer cells
    cytokines
  69. how are cytokines produced
    by t cells, WBC's, macrophages, and mast cells
  70. what are the 4 types of cytokines
    • interferons
    • interleukins
    • perforins/grazymes
    • tumor necrosis factor
  71. what type of cytokine make the cell synthesizing them and nearby cells reisitant to viral infection, slowing the spread of virus
    interferons
  72. what type of cytokine activates macrophages and NK cells
    interferons
  73. what type of cytokine promotes inflammation and fever, activate macrophages and NK cells, stimultes eosinophil production
    interleukins
  74. what type of cytokine makes holes in cell membranes resulting in the lysis of target cells
    perforins/granzymes
  75. what type of cytokine slows tumor growth and kills sensitive tumors
    tumor necrosis factors
  76. what type of cytokine is secreted by macrophages and promotes fever
    tumor necrosis factors
  77. what type of cytokine stimulates production of eosinophils, neutrophils, and basophils
    tumor necrosis factor
  78. what are the 3 type of lymphoid tissue
    • pharyngeal tonsil
    • palatine tonsils
    • lingual tonsils
  79. what type of lymphoid tissue is also called adenoids
    pharyngeal tonsil
  80. what type of lymphoid tissue are located in the posterior superior wall of the pharynx
    pharyngeal tissue
  81. what type of lymphoid tissue is located at the back of the oral cavity, along the boundary with the pharynx
    palatine tonsils
  82. what type of lymphoid tissue is usually not visible becuase they are located under the attached base of the tongue
    lingual tonsils
  83. what are the 3 types of lymphoid organs
    • lymph nodes
    • thymus
    • spleen
  84. which lymphoid organ is small and kidney shaped
    lymph nodes
  85. where do blood vessels and nerves enter the lymph node at
    hilus
  86. what lypmhatic part brings lymph to the node
    afferent lymphatics
  87. what lymphatic part moves lymph from nodes ot veins
    efferent lymphatics
  88. what lymphatic organ filters lymph before it reaches the venous system
    lymph nodes
  89. what lymphatic organ relesases lymphocytes if an infection is detected from lymph passing through the node
    lymph node
  90. how do lymph nodes remove antigens
    fixed macrophages engulf debris or pathogens as lymph flows past
  91. what lymphatic organ is positioned behind the sternum in the anterior portion of the mediastinum
    thymus
  92. when does the thymus reach its greatest size in comparison to body size
    2 years after birth
  93. when does the thymus reach its maximum size in volume and weight
    puberty
  94. what lymphatic organ is the sight of t cell maturation
    thymus
  95. what lymphatic organ contains the largest collection of lymphoid tissue
    spleen
  96. what lymphatic organ lies just lateral and inferior to the stomach to which it is anchored
    spleen
  97. what lymphatic organ functions in the removal of abnormal cells by phagocytosis
    spleen
  98. what lymphatic organ stores iron from recycled RBC's
    spleen
  99. what lympathic organ functions in the initiatino of immune responses by b cells and t cells in response to antigens in the circulating blood
    spleen
  100. what type of lympathic defense does not discriminate between one threat and another and are present at birth
    nonspecific defenense
  101. what are the 7 types of nonspecific defense
    • physical barriers
    • phagocytes
    • immunological surveillance
    • interferons
    • complement system
    • fever
    • inflammation
  102. what type of nonspecific defense keeps hazardous organisms and materials outside the body or from getting into the bloodstream
    physical barriers
  103. what type of nonspecific defense police peripheral tissues to detect and remove pathogens, foreign compounds and cellular debris
    pahgocytes
  104. what are the 2 types of phagocytes of nonspecific defense
    • microphages
    • macrophages
  105. what type of phagocyte are neutrophils, eosinophils and leave the blood stream and enter peripheral tissue subjected to injury or infection
    microphages
  106. what type of phagocyte are derived from monocytes
    macrophages
  107. what type of phagocyte may engulf pathogen or foregin object and destroy it using lysosomal enzymes
    macrophages
  108. what type of phagocyte may bind or remove a pathogen from the lymph but be unable to destory it until helped by other WBC's
    macrophages
  109. what type of phagoctye may destroy its target cell by releasing toxic chemicals into lymph/interstital fluid
    macrophages
  110. what type of nonspecific defense has natural killer cells that patrol the body for and destory foregin or abnormal cells and promote inflammation
    immunological surveillance
  111. what type of nonspecific defense has small proteins release by activated lymphocytes, macrophages, and virally infected cells
    interferons
  112. what type of nonspecific defense interferes with viral reproduction and signals help nautral killer cells and macrophages
    interferons
  113. what type of nonspecific defense destroy pathogen cell membrane
    complement system
  114. what type of nonspecific defense stimulus imflammation and attracts phagocytes
    complement system
  115. what type of nonspecific defense makes engulfment by phagocytes easer
    complement system
  116. what type of nonspecific defense is the response to pathogens or toxins
    fever
  117. what type of nonspecific defense involves an increase in body temp which increases metabolism
  118. fever
  119. what type of nonspecific defense signals the liver and spleen to absorb more iron needed by bacteria and fungi in greater amounts as temp increases their metabolism
    fever
  120. what type of nonspecific defense is a localized tissue response to injury
    inflammation
  121. what are the 4 characteristics of inflammation
    • swelling
    • redness
    • pain
    • heat
  122. what type of nonspecific defense is initiated by impact, abrasion, distortion, chemical irritatino, infection and extreme temps
    inflammation
  123. what type of nonspecific defense killss cells and damaged tissues
    inflammation
  124. what type of nonspecific defense is produced by damaged cells releasing chemicals which cause the ECF imbalance
    inflammation
  125. what type of nonspecific defense is the mobilization of the body's defenses, containment and destruction of pathogens, and tissue clean up and repair
    inflammation
  126. what type of specific defense is produced by antibodies that develop in response to antigens
    active immunity
  127. what type of specific defense is produced by transfer of antibodies from another person
    passive immunity
  128. what type of specific defense is genetically determined- no prior exposure or antibody involved
    innate immunity
  129. what are the 3 type of specific defensee
    active, passive, innate immunity
  130. what type of active immunity develops after exposure to antigens in the environment
    naturally acquired immunity
  131. what type of active immunity develops after administation of antigen to prevent disease(immunization)
    induced active immunity 
  132. what type of passive immunity involves antibodies from another individual's immune system is given to recipient
    induced passive immunity
  133. what type of passive immunity involves the fetus receiving maternal antibodies from placenta or mothers breast milk
    natural passive immunity
  134. what part of inflammtion attracts neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes to an area
    chemotaxis
  135. what part of inflammation allows leukocytes to pass through capillary wals
    diapedesis
  136. what lymphatic disorder is an accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space
    abscess
  137. what lymphatic disorder is an antigen capable of triggering an immune response
    allergen
  138. what lymphatic disorder is an inappropriate or excessive immune response to antigens, hyper inflammation leads to cell destruction
    allergy
  139. what lymphatic disorder involves the immune response mistakenly targeting normal body cells and tissues
    autoimmune disorders
  140. what lympathic disorder involves cells formed by fusion of a cancer and plasma cells and makes large amount of a single antibody
    hybridoma
  141. what lymphatic disorder suppresses the immune system to prevent rejection of transplanted tissue
    immunosuppression drugs
  142. what lymphatic disorder involves painless accumulation of lymph in a region whose lymphatic drainage has been blocked
    lymphedema
  143. what lymphatic disorder is resulted from chronic infection by the Epstein-Barr virus
    mono
  144. what lymphatic disorder includes splenomegaly, fever, sore throat, lymph node swelling, and increased circulatory lymphocytes
    mono
  145. what lympathic disorder is inherited and the individual lacks cellular immunity and humoral immunity
    severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCIDS)
  146. what is the use of an altered form a bacterial toxin to stimulate production of antibodies for protection agasint specific toxins called
    toxoids
  147. what is a preparation of antigens derived from a specific pathogen, administered during immunization
    vaccine

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