Jazz Test 3

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  1. Bebop
    • First modern Jazz of 1940’s but not popular
    • Surprise is more highly valued, difficult to follow
    • Heavy emphasis on syncopation
    • Used chords from pop tunes
  2. Piano comping
    Accompanying another instrument by improvising w/right hand melody w/left
  3. Dropping bombs
    Bebop technique of surprise when the bass drum is hit
  4. Charlie “Bird” Parker (Bebop)
    • Dry tone saxophonist who invented Bebop
    • Works were copied by Supersax
    • ABA style
    • Trading (taking turns playing solos)
  5. Dizzy Gillespie
    • Composer, trumpeter (explosive cheek)
    • Grooving High, Night in Tunisia, Manteca (Afro-Cuban sound)
    • Tried to keep big band alive
  6. Thelonious Monk (Bebop)
    • Pianist, composer
    • Cluster of sounds (dissonance)
    • Ominous sound, unusual melodies, used silence
    • Mathematical type of playing, dropped chords at end
  7. Bud Powell (Bebop)
    • Pianist
    • Mastered comping style
  8. Dexter Gordon (Bebop)
    • Saxophonist
    • Bossa Nova
  9. Sarah Vaughn (Bebop)
    • Best known Bebop singer, popular outside of jazz
    • Ballad performances, her voice had a wide range
    • Elongated singing and sang across notes
    • My Funny Valentine
  10. Stan “The Sound” Getz (Bebop)
    • Tenor Saxophonist
    • Warm, mellow, lyrical tone
  11. Cool Jazz
    • West Coast Jazz 1950’s
    • Laid back, melodic, smooth
    • Drummers used wire brushes
    • Less agitated and experimental than bop
  12. Lennie Tristano (Cool Jazz)
    • Pianist and composer, no singable music
    • Used chord changes similar to Bach’s (changing from one chord to next)
    • Long phrases and smooth lines
    • Imitated walking bass
  13. Lee Konitz (Cool Jazz)
    • Alto saxophonist inspired by Tristano
    • Light airy tone and slow vibrato
    • Less accents, more fluid movement
  14. Birth of the Cool (1949)
    • Album by Miles Davis Band (9 piece)
    • Trumpet, trombone, tuba, French horn, alto sax, baritone sax, piano, bass,
    • drums
  15. Gerry Mulligan (Cool Jazz)
    • Baritone saxophonist
    • “Birth of the Cool” composer
    • Invented pianoless quartet
  16. Dave Brubeck (Cool Jazz)
    • Pianist, composer, leader of best known cool band
    • Influenced by classical music
    • Simple, easy to follow, orderly, clear, unusual meters
    • Ranked second in sales among jazz
  17. Stan Kenton (Cool Jazz)
    • Pianist and band leader who scouted talent
    • Called his groups progressive jazz, resembled concert music
    • Emphasized composition not improvisation
    • Promoted jazz education
  18. Funky Jazz (Hard Bop)
    • Modern jazz in 1970’s
    • Strong back beat, electrified sounds
    • Use of electronic instruments (guitar, keyboards)
  19. Horace Silver (Hard Bop)
    • Pianist with original piano style
    • Hard Bop’s most prolific composer
    • Memorable melodies with stopping phrases (pauses)
    • Latin American rhythms
    • Made combo sound like big band
  20. Miles Davis (Cool Jazz/Hard Bop)
    • Trumpeter, bandleader, composer
    • Foreshadowed trends in jazz and picked key innovators each decade
    • “Birth of the Cool” sessions in 1949
    • Pioneered Modal Jazz on “Kind of Blue” album
    • Pioneered jazz rock fusion on “Bitches Brew”
  21. Miles Davis Quintet
    • Active from 1955
    • Changed members constantly
  22. Clifford Brown (Hard Bop)
    • Trumpeter (’52-’56) who died in car accident
    • Impacted Hard Bop more than any other musician
    • Speed, agility, melodic improvisations
    • Relaxed rhythmic feeling, preferred to swing
  23. Freddie Hubbard (Hard Bop)
    • Trumpeter, inspired trumpet players of 70’s
    • Clear focused tone, impeccable sense of timing
    • Improvisations sounded playful
    • Avoided stock bebop phrases
  24. Cannonball Adderley (Hard Bop)
    • Alto sax player, composer, group leader, funky jazz
    • Flowing, supercharged with energy, unpredictable
    • Blue notes & wails, quoted pop tunes
    • 50s-70s coled series of bands with brother Nat
  25. Sonny Rollins (Hard Bop)
    • Tenor saxophonist
    • Musical career peaked in 1950s
    • Lyrical playing and swinging
    • Funky, simple playing in 1970s-1980s
  26. John Coltrane (Hard Bop)
    • Tenor/soprano saxophonist, band leader
    • Imitated over decades, developed individual style in 1950s
    • Rough, textured, dark, biting tone
    • Speed and agility, giant steps
    • Knowledge of scales and chords
    • Rapid, densely packed solo improvisations
Card Set:
Jazz Test 3
2013-04-04 01:32:03

bebop, hard bop, cool jazz
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