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How many orders are there of aves? What do the names end in?
How many families are there in aves? What do the names end in?
How many different aves species are there?
What is the range of how much a bird weighs?
1.6 grams (hummingbirds) to 156 kg (ostriches)
How are birds adapted to get around?
- some for flight
- some for swimming
- some non-flighted
What are the different orders of birds that we need to know?
What are some examples of psittacines (parrots)?
What are some examples of passerines (song birds)?
- gouldian finches
- indian hill mynah
What are some examples of columbiforms (doves)?
- white winged dove
- crowned pigeon
- jambu fruit dove
What is a ratites and what are some examples of some?
- large flightless birds
- emu and ostrich
What are some examples of anseriforms (water fowl)?
- ringed teal (small ducks)
What are some galliforms (chickens, turkeys, etc)?
- ocelated turkey
- golden pheasant
What are falconiforms?
raptors - birds of prey
What are the different laws regarding birds?
What is the FWS of USDI?
- Eagle Protection Act
- Migratory Bird Treaty Act
What does the USDA do regarding birds?
quarantine of import birds
What does the VDGIF do?
protects wild birds
What is a normal temperature for a bird and what do we call this?
- 104 - 108 degrees F
What are birds similar to?
What are birds typically adapted for?
- flight - feathers, light skeleton
- but flightless species do exist
Do birds have hair?
- they have feathers and scales
Do birds have sweat glands?
What kind of bones do birds have that make them different than mammals?
light pneumatic bones
How is the spine of a bird different than a mammal?
have 8 - 25 cervical vertebrae instead of 7 like a mammal
What replaces the forelimbs in birds?
What is the tongue like of a bird?
horny tongue - few taste buds
How many stomachs do birds have?
many have 2 stomachs
Do birds have many lymphoid organs?
no, they have few
What is the rear external opening in birds?
Do birds have an epiglottis?
What is the crop?
dilation of the esophagus
What kind of kidneys do birds have?
Do birds have a urinary bladder?
no, they do not have a urinary bladder or urethra
Where is there a cloaca present in birds?
How do female birds reproduce?
Where are the ovarys and oviducts located on birds?
What kind of testes do male birds have? Do they have a penis?
- internal testes
- most have no penis
Do females birds have mammary glands?
What is the choanal slit?
- located on the roof of the mouth
- a slit that connects through some passages to the nostrils
- the glottis will fit snugly into the choanal slit when the bird closes its mouth, and the bird will then have a closed connection from the nostrils to the windpipe.
What is the syrinx?
- an organ found at the junction of the end of the trachea (windpipe) with the beginning of the large left and right primary bronchi
- these are air tubes that allow the passage of air into the deeper portions of the respiratory tract
What are the lungs of birds attached to?
How many air sacs do birds have?
Do birds have a diaphragm?
What kind of tracheal rings do birds have?
complete tracheal rings
What do blood cells of birds look like?
all are nucleated
How many portal systems do birds have? What are they?
Do birds have a pinna?
What do birds have around their eyes?
What are some uses for birds?
- for food
- for leather
Is a bird nutrition important?
yes, they must have an essential correct nutrition
Do we need to worry about a bird temperature and humidity in their habitat?
What do we need to make sure we minimize in a birds habitat?
Are many pet birds fed the correct diet?
no, most of them are fed incorrectly
Are there commercial diets for birds?
Which diet is best for birds?
Are there avian vitamins available?
What are the different types of commercial diets available for birds?
- Chick starter
- Turkey starter
- Game bird chow
Describe a birds skin.
- scales on legs and cere (area around beak)
Are lesions common on a birds skin?
- yes, may lesions seen
- does not heal well
When is nutrition important for the development of feathers?
the first 3 - 4 weeks of life
What do feathers derive from?
When do adult birds molt?
Do feathers grow fast?
Where are flight feathers?
How do birds molt flight feathers?
- some one at a time so they can still fly
- some all at once during nesting while setting eggs - unable to fly during this time
Can birds get disease of their feathers?
yes - can get mites
What are stress lines?
- stress that causes a white line across feather
- discuss with client about how to destress the birds environment
What comes out of the shaft of a birds feather?
- calamus - barbs come out that create color
- rachis - featherless
- these two lay on top of each other so you don't typically see the rachis
What comes off the barbs of feathers? What is the purpose of this?
- barbules and barbicels
- allows feathers to perform what they need to fly
How much do birds feathers weigh?
1/6th of birds body weight
How fast can a house sparrow fly? How fast can a peregrine fly? How fast can a hummer fly?
- house sparrow: 30 kph
- peregrine: 100 kph
- hummer: 80 wing beats/sec
What are the functions of feathers?
- water proofing
- courtship - males are brighter
What are the different types of feathers?
- powder down
What are remiges?
- flight feathers
- primaries: off the phalanges
- secondaries: off wing
Do birds groom themselves?
Where is the preen gland?
at dorsal tail base
What is the anatomy of a bird starting at the top and working down?
- pectoral muscles
What is the incubation period of eggs for a bird?
10 - 80 days
Are birds altricial or precocious?
can be etiher
What nourishes the chick?
Do all young birds require care? Even the precocious ones?
- precocious ones need to be shown what to eat
- altricial ones need to be fed
Do birds grow quickly?
How do we approach medical problems with birds?
- preventative medicine
- physical exam
- diagnostic aids
When do birds typically show signs of something being wrong?
late in the disease
When getting a history about a client's bird, what do we need to make sure we note?
any change in appearance, behavior, food intake
What usually causes dyspnea in birds?
- birds in large groups
- from stress or being overheated
Is restraint usually required when doing a physical exam on a bird?
Should we have all of our supplies ready before getting the bird out of the cage?
What can birds use as weapons?
Which birds are biters and which birds are stabbers?
- biters: parrots, raptors
- stabber: ibis, storks
Which birds use their wings as weapons?
Which birds use their claws/talons as weapons?
When we go to grab a bird, what do we need to do first?
neutralize their weapons first
How can we determine if a bird is too thin?
when palpating the pectoral muscles of a bird and the keel is sharp then the bird is thin
How do we determine if a bird is obese?
when palpating the pectoral muscles of a bird and we are unable to feel the keel at all then the bird is obese
Is neoplasia common in birds?
no, lumps are usually abscesses
Are the lung sounds of birds easy to hear or hard to hear?
hard to hear
What kind of blood work do we need to do before anesthetizing a bird?
at least a PVC and TP
Should we fast a bird before anesthesia? Why or why not?
no, they can become hypoglycemic very quickly
How often do we do IPPV (intermittent positive pressure ventilation) for a bird?
we do it more frequently than in mammals because birds only move air when they are flapping their wings so we give about 4 - 6 breaths per minute
Do we normal premed a bird before anesthesia?
no, we can give opioids only if they are having a painful surgery
How do we prep a bird for surgery?
- pull feathers once anesthetized
- aseptic skin prep - pain the antispetics, do not scrub
- use lightweight drapes
- keep warm
- hook up fluids IV or IO if the bird is a poor anesthetic risk
Are fecal exams useful when assessing a bird?
yes, because caged birds should not have parasites
Is radiography a useful tool when diagnosing a bird?
How do we restrain a bird during radiology?
- tape or velcro to table
What kind of film should we use for radiographs for birds if we do not have digital radiography?
high detail film (mammo film or screen film)
How do we do a laparoscopy for a bird?
- use rigid scope or otoscope
- enter thru abdominal air sacs
What do we mainly use laparoscopy for in birds?
When using a laparoscopy to sex birds, what do the ovaries and testicles look like?
- ovaries: clusters of white grapes
- testicle: may be white or pigmented - will see 2 of them
What are some common procedures we do with birds in the veterinary clinic?
- clip nails and beak
- clip feathers
- weigh (in grams)
- sex determination
What are ways to determine the sex of a bird?
- dimorphism in some species (males are typically brighter)
- blood tests
- feather pulp tests
- fecal steroid tests
How can blood tests determine the sex of a bird?
- sort chromosomes
- males are homogametic xx
- females are heterogametic xo
- opposite than in mammals
Why do we deflight birds?
they can escape or injury themselves by flying into windows if we do not deflight them
What are the two different ways to deflight a bird?
- cut primary feather: can cut either one side of both, they do grow back so must be done once a year
- pinion: amputate the tip at the metacarpal bones, permanently deflights them
If an owner gets a bird with a metal leg band, should they get it removed?
yes because they bird will grow and the band can become embedded into the leg
Are birds easy or hard to stomach tube?
What is hyperalimentation? How do we fix this?
- poor nutrition
- tube feed, warm up food, don't overfill crop, monitor weight
What are the different ways we can give fluids to a bird?
- orally (gavage or tube) done multiple times a day
- intravenous (bolus or catheter)
- intra-osseous (distal ulna)
How much fluid do we give to birds?
50 ml/kg/day + dehydration
What are some common noninfectious problems in birds?
- nutritional deficiencies - usually metabolic bone disease
- trauma - fractures and wounds
- toxins - mainly lead
- degenerative conditions
- feather problems
- egg bound
- chronic laying
- visceral/articular gout
- behavior disorders
What is curly toed paralysis?
vitamin B6 deficiency
What is perosis?
Which birds do we see perosis in?
fast growing large birds such as ratites, cranes, geese/ducks
What happens with perosis and how do we fix it?
- leg rotates at hock
- decrease feed by cutting it in half, may need to splint leg
What are reasons why we would bandage a birds wing to its body?
- fracture repair
- to a soft tissue injury
- post-op support
What can we use to bandage a birds wing to its body?
- vetwrap, masking tape
- avoid sticky tape
Neoplasia is common in which birds? And which neoplasia do they get?
What kind of behavior disorders do we see in birds?
- feather picking
What is feather picking?
- behavioral abnormality
- obsessive behavior
Which birds are prone to getting egg bound?
What will a bird do when they are egg bound?
fall to the left side due to the weight of the egg
What are the different ways we can fix a bird that has a bound egg?
- lubricate the egg and see if it will slide out
- give calcium
- warm bird
- puncture egg with a needle and suck out the yolk, then crush the egg and let the bird pass the pieces
What is the first sign a bird will show they are not feeling well?
behavioral signs - eyes closed, ruffled feathers, sitting in the bottom of cage
What are the two types of gout?
What is articular gout? Is this common?
Is visceral gout common?
What are the different kinds of visceral gout?
- periontitis (heart)
What will we see in lab findings for a bird with gout?
- increased uric acid
- increased phosphorus
What gout related to and how do we correct this?
- related to dehydration
- prevent by giving fluids
What are the four main classifications of infectious diseases?
What are some avian viruses?
- PBFD (psitticines beaken feather disease)
- proventricular dilatation
- duck viral enteritis
- avian encephalitis
- quail enteritis
- herpes virus
What is VVND?
- velogenic visceral newcastle disease
- neurologic disease but may be respiratory
How is avian pox spread?
How do we treat avian pox?
with antiviral drugs or immune stimulants
What are the signs of avian pox?
skin and mouth masses or ulcers
What kind of virus is beak and feather disease?
What does beak and feather disease look like?
abnormal feathers and beak
What is the prognosis for beak and feather disease?
Which birds have problems with beak and feather disease?
What is polyoma virus?
budgerigar fledging disease
Is there a vaccine for polyoma virus?
yes, inject under the skin
What are the signs of polyoma virus?
- clinical signs seen in young birds
- peracute death
- delayed crop emptying
- weight loss
- SQ hemorrhage
What is another name for proventricular dilatation disease?
macaw wasting disease
What age do we usually see proventricular dilatation disease?
seen in younger birds
What are the clinical signs of proventricular dilatation disease?
- chronic regurgitation
- undigested seed in feces
How do we diagnose proventricular dilatation disease?
What is duck viral enteritis?
- enlarged liver and spleen
- will see diarrhea with blood in it
What are the differen bacterial diseases?
- e coli
What is another name for avian cholera?
What disease is the leading killer of wild birds?
How do we treat avian cholera?
- mostly seen in birds that have been bit by a cat because cats naturally have pasteurella in their mouths
What is another name for chlamydophilosis?
What kind of clinical signs will we see in a bird with chlamydophilosis?
Is chlamydophilosis zoonotic?
yes, people will see flu-like signs
How do we diagnose chlamydophilosis?
- many serologic tests used - sensitivity/specificity vary
- PCR available
- Elementary body agglutination (measures IgM)
- choanoal cultures
- leukocyte counts (very high)
- elevated liver enzymes
- chlamydial ELISA
What are the clinical signs of sinusitis in birds?
- nasal discharge
- swelling around eyes
What often causes sinusitis?
How do we diagnose sinusitis?
How do we treat sinusitis?
- supportive treatment
What is mycoplasmosis common in?
What are the clinical signs of mycoplasmosis in birds?
swelling around eyes and joints
What is erysipelis common in?
What does erysipelis do to turkeys and how do we treat it?
- hemorrhagic lesions in heart
- treat with antibiotics
What birds are prone to aspergillosis?
marine birds in capitivity
What causes aspergillosis?
What does aspergillosis cause in birds?
lesions in lungs or air sac
What are the clinical signs of aspergillosis?
How do we treat aspergillosis?
How do we diagnosis aspergillosis?
- nonregenerative anemia
- leukocytosis - increased heterophils and monocytes
- increased globulins - increased TP
- ELISA tests
- tracheal wash - will see hyphae
- rads/laparoscopy to see lesions
Which birds do we see avian tuberculosis in?
wild and zoo birds
How is tuberculosis spread?
What is normal crop flora and when can it be a problem?
- when it overgrows
What are the clinical signs of candidiasis overgrowth?
Which birds have a problem with candidiasis?
How do we diagnose candidiasis?
crop wash ID
What are the external parasites we see in birds?
- mites on feathers and scales
- lice on feathers
- arthropods - mainly flatflies (Hippoboscids)
Where are the two different places we worry about protozoa in birds?
What are some GI tract protozoa in birds?
What are some blood protozoa in birds?
What are some nematodes we see in birds?
- ascarids (round worms)
- capillaria (common in crop/intestine)
- syngamus (gapeworm)
- microfilaria (rare)
What is the intermediate host for gapeworm?
What are some common toxins in birds?
- lead (mainly in pets, waterfowl, and raptors)
- cholinesterase inhibitors (organophosphates, carbamates)
- botulinum toxin
- teflon fumes
Are reptiles more sensitive to toxins than mammals?
How do birds typically get lead/zinc poisoning?
ingesting toys or from their cages
What kind of organ systems does lead/zinc poisoning affect in birds?
CNS and GI
Do radiographs help us identify any lead/zinc poisoning?
yes, we could possibly see the lead in the GI tract
Other than radiographs, how else can we diagnose lead/zinc poisoning?
blood work - look for lead and zinc levels
How do we treat lead/zinc poisoning?
Ca EDTA and retest after 5 days
What is CHE inhibitors?
from organophosphate carbonate
Are CHE inhibitors toxic?
What are the signs we will see with CHE inhibitors?
How do we treat CHE inhibitors?
- atropine/2-PAM (only if it works if you catch it right away)
- supportive care
What are some more different types of toxins affecting birds?
- algae toxins
- chlorinated hydrocarbons
What are the different plant toxicities that affects birds?
- ornamentals in the home
- wild flowers
What are the different ways eggs can hatch?
- naturally by being warmed by the mother
- in an incubator
What is pipping?
bird taps on the egg shell with its egg tooth to break the shell open
How long does the egg tooth stay on the end of the birds beak?
for three days after birth
What happens to the yolk once the baby bird is born?
the bird sucks the yolk into its body and lives off of it for 24 hours after birth
Are pet birds susceptible to many of the same problems as wild birds?
Can we use the same treatments and diagnosis tools in pet birds as we do in wild birds?