Card Set Information
exam 3 a&p
What does tonic mean?
tone of the muscle
What refers to the background tension of a muscle at rest?
what is "iso"?
same or equal
What is "metric"?
The length of the muscle changes while the tone remains constant is what?
What is isometric?
the length remains constant while the tone changes
What three ways can muscles obtain ATP?
glycogen/lactic acid system
What does use oxygen and provides more immediate supply of ATP but is not as productive?
What does use oxygen and takes more time but yields high amounts of ATP?
What is myoglobin?
a molecule that holds oxygen within muscle cells as an immediate source of oxygen for the cell
What is glycogen?
long chain of glucose molecules stored in muscle cells for an immediate source of glucose
involves using pre-made ATP
if fully used, lasts about 10 seconds
provides for the strongest or fastest performances
convert 1 glucose molecule into a net gain of 2 ATP molecules
fairly rapid and lasts about 1-2 min.
produces lactic acid
glycogen/lactic acid system
concerts 1 glucose into 38 ATP molecules
requires a decrease in strength and speed
what are the functions of the nervous system?
internal and external sensation
What is the CNS composed of?
any nervous tissue and cells of the brain and spinal cord
What does the CNS do?
processing of info.
conduction of signals
What is the PNS include?
any nervous tissue and cells outside of the brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS do?
provides sensation and motor effects
What is the ANS?
involves involuntary nervous tissue and cells
What is the SNS?
voluntary actions of nervous tissues and cells
What can be organized furthur into a sympathetic nervous system and a parasympathetic nervous system?
What is the fight or flight response that stimulates muscles, heart and respiratory?
sympathetic nervous system
What is "restin' and digestin'" that stimulates urinary and digestive system?
parasympathetic nervous system
What are neurons?
cells of the nervous system that transmit electrical signals as a form of communication
What are characteristics of neurons?
What three types of neurons are there?
What detects stimulation in the body or environment and conducts it to the CNS?
What conducts electrical signals from the CNS to the PNS?
What processes info, only in the CNS and has no snesation?
Why can't we feel our brain being touched?
because of interneurons
What are the three major REGIONS to a neuron?
What are dendrites?
branch like extensions off of the the main body of the cell
detects changes in the environment around them and conduct those changes in the form of electricity to the soma is what?
What is the soma?
main cell body of the neuron (nucleus, cytosol, organells)
What processes the info from the dendrites and can generate electrical signals to be sent down the axon to a target cell?
What is the axon?
long extension off of the soma that extends out to the target cell
What conducts electrical signals from the soma to the target cells?
In motor neurons especially, special helper cells called _____ encase the axon along it's length
What provides 2 layers important to the axon?
Gaps between Schwann cells are called what?
nodes of ranvier
what is the branched ending of the axon?
each branch has what at it's end (of terminal arborization)
What are the 2 layers of the schwann cell?
What stimulates the axon?
What is composed of a fatty protein called myelin?
What speeds up the signal in the neuron?
What is the outer layer created by the schwann cell?
What provides a continuous "sleeve" that helps a severed axon regrow back to it's target cells?
What are the 6 types of neuroglia?
What are the neuroglia?
helper cells of the nervous system
What 4 neuroglia are only in the CNS?
What 2 neuroglia are only found in the PNS?
What does oligodendrocytes do?
provide myelin for CNS axons
What does ependymal cells do?
produce and secrete cerebrospinal fluid
What does microglia do?
macrophages of the CNS
What does astrocytes do?
create a blood/brain barrier
What do schwanna cells do?
create myelin and neurilemma around PNS axons
What do satelite cells do?
support soma of PNS neurons
What is large surge of electricity that travels down an axon to target cells and is synonymous with electrical waves or signals?
What does polarity mean?
Because the ECF has mostly positively charged ions at first, the ECF carries what?
a strong positive charge
What is the way to quantify the charge within the axon before, during and after an action potential?
When an action is ready to send a signal, the inside of the axon has a resting potential of -70mV is what?
What is the value of the axon's charge where it will respond by creating a signal. An axon's threshold potential is -55 mV
the axon's potential at the peak of the signal is +35mV
peak action potential
what are the 3 functions of the spinal cord?
In the spinal cord, there is a large gathering of what?
myelinated and unmyelinated neurons
Conduction of the spinal cord allows the ___ and ____ to have an efficient route for communication.
How many pairs of spinal nerves are off of the spinal cord?
What neurons gather and enter in the back of the spinal cord?
What neurons gather and exit out the front of the spinal cord?
What are meninges?
protective group of 3 tissue layers
What are the 3 layers of the meninges?
pia matter- innermost
What does the subarachnoid space contain?
Functions of the brain?
control of other organs and tissues
processing of sensory info.
What is the largest region of the brain that is convaluted (has folds)
The cerebrums outer layer is grey matter known as what?
What is surrounded by meninges?
The cerebrum is separated by what into two hemispheres?
Each hemisphere of the cerebrum has how many lobes?
What is the frontal lobes' functions?
What is the parietal lobes' function?
primary sensory area
What is the occipital lobe's function?
primary visual center
What is the temporal lobes' function?
primary auditory center
Where is the corpus collosum located?
below the cerebrum
What is the "C" shaped area of the cerebrum at its deepest and most inferior region?
What provides a link between the 2 hemispheres of the brain?
What is located inferior to the corpus callosum and superior to the brain stem and has two regions?
what is the function of the thalamus?
receives sensory info. from all over the body and directs info. to correct area of the brain
Where is the hypothalamus located?
it tapers to extend into the pituitary gland
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
it monitors and manages many aspects of homeostasis
The brain stem is a collection of what?
What is the most inferior region of the brain?
what happens in the midbrain?
what is visual tracking?
the use of eye and neck muscles to follow objects
What happens in the pons?
urinary bladder control
facial expressions (controlling own, recognizing others)
What is the pneumetaxic (moving air) area of the brain?
what happens in the medulla oblongata?
cardiovascular rate area
Where is the cerebellum?
inferior to the occipital lobe
What is the function of the cerebellum?
coordinates skeletal muscle movement.
Damage to what area can lead to tremors or symptoms of parkinson disease?
What is cerebral spinal fluid produced by?
What flows through subarachnoid spaces of meninges and also flows through the chamber of brain and spinal cord?
cerebral spinal fluid
What is the function of cerebral spinal fluid?
rinses CNS-removes waste
allows brain and spinal cord to float
What are the 3 functions of blood?
provide a means for transportation in the body
What does the blood transport?
What, in the blood can protect against many infectious agents?
What are antibodies?
protect against previously encountered foreign antigens
What helps stop bleeding?
platelets and blood proteins
What initiates the inflamation response?
By being made of ____, blood can be transported everywhere and help manage water levels
What does the blood contain that helps balance the pH of the body's fluids?
What does blood regulate?
What is plasma?
liquid part of the blood
What is found in plasma?
What are the two blood components?
What are the formed elements in the blood?
What have a discoid shape and lack a nucleus?
How long do erythrocytes last?
live about 120 days
Where are erythrocytes created?
red bone marrow
What is the function of erythrocytes?
transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide
What is hemoglovin made of?
4 globin proteins
4 heme groups
4 iron atoms
How many hemoglobins per red blood cell?
In hemoglobin, each iron atom can attract 1 oxygen molecule as they pass by what?
Where are leukocytes created?
red bone marrow
What has a spheroid shape and 5 major types?
What has a grainy appearance?
What is the most common leukocyte that defends agains bacteria?
What to eosinophils do?
defend against parasites
respond to allergens
What doe basophils secrete?
histamine that increases blood flow
heparin to prevent clotting
Are Agranulocytes grainy?
What 3 types of agranulocytes are there?
What defends against viruses, foreign cells, cancer cels and create the antibodies?
What do monocytes become?
What is a cell fragment from a large cell within red bone matter that is an important component of blood clotting?
Where is the heart located?
What has a double pump?
Which side of the heart is the pulmonary side that has deoxygenated blood?
Which side of the heart is the systemic side and has oxygenated blood?
What is the double-layered membrane sac that encases the heart?
What does the pericardium do?
contains fluid between the membranes to prevent damage from friction as it beats
The heart wall is composed of 3 layers. What are they?
Epicardium has what type of tissue?
Myocardium has what type of tissue?
cardiac muscle tissue
What receives and holds blood. Their walls generate pressure on that blood to pump it onward.
What receives blood from the body through the vena cavae and sends it to the right ventricle?
What receives blood from pulmonary veins and sends it to the left ventricle?
What receives blood from right atrium and sends it to the pulmonary trunk?
What receives blood from left atrium and sends it to the aorta?
What are valves?
"one-way" doors at the exit of each chamber.
prevent the backflow of blood
Where is the atrioventricular valve located?
between atria and ventricles
What is the right side AV valve called?
right AV valve or tricuspid valve
what is the left side AV valve called?
left AV valve, bicuspid valve or mitral valve
What prevents the atrioventricular valves from opening all the way?
Where are semilunar valves located?
the exits of the ventricles
What is the right side semilunar valves called?
What is the left side semilunar valve called?
When blood tries to fall back through these valves, the cusps fold together and close
What are major blood vessels?
large tubes that carry blood toward or away from the heart
What is 2 large veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium?
where does superior vena cava come from?
arms and head
Where does inferior vena cava come from?
areas below the heart
what is a series of vessels involved with getting blood to and back from the lungs?
pulmonary blood vessels
What is a large artery that begins to send blood toward the lungs?
what are 2 branches of the pulmonary trunk each carrying blood to a lung?
what are pulmonary veins?
bring blood back from lungs to left atrium
What is a large artery that carries oxygenated blood away from the left ventricle toward the body?
What are small blood vessels on the anterior surface of the heart that supply oxygen and nutrient rich blood to the myocardium?
What is the cardiac conduction system?
nervous system of the heart
What is the area of specialized heart cells near the superior vena cava in the right atrium wall.
sinoatrial node (SA node)
What does the pacemaker do for the heart?
it's actions determine the heart rate
What is a group of specialized heart cells at the base of the interatrial septum?
atrioventricular node (AV node)
What does the AV node do?
receives signals from Sa node and sends action potentials down nerves in the interventricular spetum
What is the brief nerve off of the AV node that begins to descend through the IV septum?
What is two split nerves from the AV bundle that extend to the apex of the heart?
What are widespread branches of the bundle branches that extend back up through the walls of the ventricles?
What does the electrocardiogram do?
way to show what the conduction system is doing
whats the order of the electrocardiogram (terms)
Pwave, QRS complex, Twave
What is the amount of blood that leaves the heart at the end of one heart beat?
What is cardiac output?
amount of blood pumped out of the heart in 1 min.
SV x BPM=cardiac output
what is tachycardia?
faster than normal resting H.R.
100 bpm or more.
what is bradycardia
slower than normal resting H.R. 60 bpm or fewer
What is ventricular contraction and leads to max. measured blood pressure in the arteries?
What is the normal systolic pressure?
120 mm Hg
What is ventricular relaxation that leads to a min. measured blood pressure in the arteries?
What is the normal diastolic pressure?
80 mm Hg
What are tubes through which blood flows. consists of a series of connected, widespread tubing
What is an artery?
carries blood away from the heart
What is a vein?
carries blood toward the heart
What is a capillary?
smallest of blood vessels. allows blood to slowly pass by the cells and exchanged materials
How many tissue layers are in veins and arteries?
What are the 3 tissue layers of veins and arteries?
What if the outermost layer that anchors vessels to it's spot? (veins and arteries)
What is the middle layer that has smooth muscle and allows for vasoconstriction and vasodilation and has elastin
What helps arteries accomodate the flucuations in pressure?
What is the innermost layer which has epithelial tissue and allows for smooth flow of blood?
What is 1 layer of simple squamous cells rolled into microscopic tubes?
what is the function of arteries and veins?
What is the function of capillaries?
exchange of materials between blood and cells
What applies pressure to veins and cause blood to move onward?
skeletal muscle contractions
What veins of lower extremeties have valves to prevent backflow?