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  1. Where do IPSCs derive from?
    from non-pluripotent cell
  2. When were IPSCs introduced to mouses ?
  3. When were IPSCs introduced to humans?
  4. How were IPSCs produced?
    by transfection of cells with genesc coding for transcription factors
  5. How many transcription factors were found to be sufficient to induce cells to become stem cells?
    it only took 4 transcription factors to induce cells to stem cells
  6. What was an intial problem when producing IPSCs?
    genes for transcription factors were incorporated in retroviruses thus induced cell also had genes for the retroviruses
  7. What was the solution for the intial problem when producing IPSCs?
    they injected mRNA that codes for these transcription factors

    *therefore the induced cells do not have retroviruses
  8. Problem with the new method of producing IPSCs?
    • at least one of the transcription factors is a cancer-promoter
    • *there was a chance that cells can grow out of control
  9. What does cloning mean in GREEK?
    twig or branch
  10. What does clone a gene mean?
    put a small stretch of DNA from one organism into the genome of another (usually a bacterial cell)
  11. What does clone a cell mean?
    make many copies of a bacterial cell

    **clone an organism from one single cell
  12. What was the result from cloning a sheep experiment?
    the results support that mature cells contain all the genes in the genome it is jsut that some are turned off
  13. How can one turn on or off different sections of genome?
    by epigentic modulation
  14. In epigenetic modificaiton, are we modifying the sequence of DNA nucleotides?
    no we are just altering whether or not the gene can be expressed thats all
  15. What causes cells to become pluripotent?
    there is an unknown factor inside the eggs cytoplasm
  16. What do homeotic genes trigger?
    the development of structures that are appropriate to each type of segment
  17. What does homeosis do?
    example) it transplants a wing tissue elsewhere at this stage will produce wing tissue in the new location

    ***fly has legs in place of antenna
  18. Why does homeosis occur?
    it occurs when cells get incorrect information about where they are in the body
  19. What do hox (homeotic genes) genes code for
    regulatory transcription factors that trigger the production of segment specific structures
  20. What is homeobox?
    the site along the DNA where the transcription factors bind

    -very similar between different organisms
  21. Hox genes AND similarities between different organisms
    the hox genes on a fly chromosome correlates with the expression in a mouse
  22. key points for hox genes- hox genes AND relation between different organisms (2)
    hox genes are very closely related in creatures as distinct as fruit flies and humans

    -this implies that the genes are a million years old
  23. What does the relation between different organisms  and the similarities of their hox genes imply?
    that there is an ancient origin of these genes
  24. How can hox genes be changed a bit? and what can it lead to?
    • through alteration in transcription factors (enhancer or silencers). This binding can lead to the development of new forms
    • ***key factor in evolution
Card Set:
2013-04-04 03:22:40

stem cells and cloning
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