CSCI 127 TEST 1

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Author:
dsalanga11292
ID:
211345
Filename:
CSCI 127 TEST 1
Updated:
2013-04-04 01:17:50
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computer science
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Set of Cards for computer science test 1
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  1. Bit
    Binary digit (0 or 1) used to represent information such as numbers, text, images, and sound
  2. AND
    • 00 - 0
    • 01 - 0
    • 10 - 0
    • 11 - 1
  3. OR
    • 00 - 0
    • 01 - 1
    • 10 - 1
    • 11 - 1
  4. XOR
    • 00 - 0
    • 01 - 1
    • 10 - 1
    • 11 - 0
  5. RAM
    Random Access Memory - memory in which individual cells can be easily accessed in any order
  6. DRAM
    Dynamic Memory - RAM composed of volatile memory
  7. Mass Storage Systems
    • Magnetic Systems - Disk, Tape
    • Optical Systems - CD, DVD
    • Flash Technology - Flash drives, SD Card
  8. File
    unit of data stored in mass storage system
  9. Representing Text...
    ASCII - uses patterns of 7-bits to represent most symbols used in written English text
  10. Representing Numbers...
    Binary notation - uses bits to represent a number base in two
  11. Representing Images...
    use of bit map with pixels

    • Compressing Images:
    • - GIF: cartoons
    • - JPEG: photographs
    • - TIFF: image archiving
  12. Representing Sound...
    sampling techniques used for high quality recordings - records actual audio

    MIDI - used in music synthesizers - records "musical score"

    • Compressing Audio:
    • - MP3: temporal masking, frequency masking
  13. Blaise Pascal
    invented the calculator
  14. Jacquard
    invented the earliest programmable loom
  15. Charles Babbage
    invented the first mechanical computer; "father of the computer"
  16. Ada Lovelace
    created the first algorithm
  17. John von Neumann
    invented the first computer virus
  18. Alan Turing
    invented the turing machine (model of general purpose computer); "father of computer science and artificial intelligence"
  19. Grace Hopper
    one of the first programmers of the Mark I computer and developed the first compiler
  20. Hollerith
    developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics
  21. Ritchie and Thompson
    created the Multics operating system
  22. Binary to Numeric
  23. Numeric to Binary
  24. Binary to Numeric (fractions)
  25. CPU
    Central Processing Unit; arithmetic/logic unit and control unit with registers
  26. Machine Instruction Types
    Data Transfer - copy data from one location to another

    Arithmetic/Logic - use existing bit patterns to compute new bit patterns

    Control - direct the execution of a program
  27. Op-Codes
    • 1 - Load
    • 3 - Store
    • 5 - Add
    • 7 - Or
    • 8 - And
    • C000 - Halt
  28. Program Execution
    • controlled by program counter (address of next instruction) and instruction register (address of current instruction)
  29. Algorithm - Sort
    • pseudocode -
  30. Program
    instructions in computer memory to make it do something
  31. Main Hardware Component Categories:
    • CPU
    • Main memory
    • Secondary memory/Storage
    • Input Devices
    • Output Devices
  32. Input Devices
    devices that send information to the computer from the outside

    ex. keyboard, mouse, scanner
  33. What is a Program Made of?
    • Key words - "reserved words"
    • Programmer-Defined Identifiers - names made up by the programmer
    • Operators - used to perform operations on data
    • Punctuation - mark the end of a statement
    • Syntax - grammatical rules
  34. Variable
    a named storage location in the computer's memory for holding a piece of data
  35. The Programming Process
  36. Compiler
    converts source program into machine instructions
  37. Hexadecimal Notation

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