Immunology and Serology

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Immunology and Serology
2013-05-11 01:38:18
Immunology Immune System

Immunology and the Immune System
Show Answers:

  1. Name the types of immunity
    • Innate: nonspecific or natural
    • Adaptive: specific or acquired
  2. What is the first line of defense for immunity?
    • Physical barriers: skin, mucus
    • Chemicals: secreted by cells and tissues (pH of skin, complement, interferons)
  3. What is the 2nd line of defense for immunity?
    • Phagocytosis
    • Inflammation: nonspecific response to tissue damage that includes chemical release, cellular movement, elimination of foreign material, and tissue repair
    • Complement system: enhances phagocytosis, stimulates inflammatory response, and lyses foreign cells
  4. Name and describe the 2 responses of adaptive immunity
    • Humoral-mediated immunity (HMI): more important in protection against extracellular pathogens and includes antibody production by plasma cells
    • Cell-mediated immunity: more important in protection against intracellular pathogens (NK cells, T helper cells, Cytotoxic T lymphs, Cytotoxins)
  5. What is a substance that is capable of inducing an immune response?
  6. What is a substance that specifically interacts with cells or substances of the immune system?
  7. What is the portion of a molecule that binds to an antibody or T cell receptor?
  8. What are molecules that require T helper cells to stimulate antibody formation?
    Thymic dependent immunogens
  9. What are molecules that initiate antibody production without stimulating T helper cells?
    Thymic independent immunogens
  10. Name the characteristics of immunogens
    • Foreignness: must be recognized as "nonself"
    • Size: greater than 10 kilodaltons
    • Chemical composition: proteins and carbs are the most immunogenic
    • Complexity: the more complex, the more immunogenic
  11. What is a compound that enhances an immune response?
  12. What is a protein that binds to antigens?
  13. Name the 5 classes of antibodies
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
    • IgE
    • IgD
  14. What are antibodies composed of?
    • 2 Heavy chains: gamma, alpha, mu, epsilon, delta
    • 2 Light chains: kappa or lambda
  15. Multiple monomers of IgM and IgA are linked by a ________
    J (joining) chain
  16. What is the predominant serum antibody?
  17. What is the only immunoglobulin that crosses the placenta?
  18. What immunoglobulin is produced in secondary (anamnestic) antibody response?
  19. What immunoglobulin is 5 monomers linked together by a J chain and interchain disulfide bonds?
  20. What is the 1st antibody produced against an immunogen?
  21. What immunoglobulin is the best activator of the classical pathway of complement?
    IgM (because only one is required)
  22. What immunoglobulin has serum and secretory forms?
  23. What is the function of serum IgA?
    • Antigen clearance
    • Immune regulation
  24. What is the function of IgA in mucous membranes?
    Block attachment of viruses, bacteria, and toxins to host cells
  25. What immunoglobulin is primarily a cell membrane surface component of B lymphs?
  26. What immunoglobulin is responsible for allergic (type I hypersensitivity) reactions?
  27. What immunoglobulin has a Fc portion that binds to receptors on mast cells and basophils, that triggers degranulation of the cell and release mediators such as histamine and leukotrienes?
  28. What clinical condition has elevated levels of IgE?
    Parasitic infections
  29. What is the term for identical antibodies that are produced from a single clone of plasma cells?
    Monoclonal antibodies
  30. What is found in individuals with multiple myeloma?
    Monoclonal antibodies
  31. What is the function of monocytes and macrophages?
    • Phagocytosis of invaders
    • Present immunogens to T helper cells (1st step in an immune response)
  32. What is the normal range for the WBCs found in peripheral blood?
    • Neutrophils: 60-70%
    • Lymphs: 20-40%
    • Monocytes: 2-6%
    • Eosinophils: 1-3%
    • Basophils: 0-1%
  33. What WBC has the function of phagocytosis and contributes to inflammatory response?
  34. What WBC has the function to mediate IgE allergic response?
  35. What WBC has receptors for IgE and granules responsible for allergic reactions?
  36. What cell expresses surface molecules such as CD19 or CD20?
    B lymphs (or B cells)
  37. What do B lymphs (B cells) differentiate into?
    • Plasma cells - that produce antibodies
    • Memory B cells
  38. What cells expresses surface molecules such as CD2 and CD3?
    T lymphs (T cells)
  39. What is the function of T lymphs (T cells)?
    • CTLs lyse host cells infected with viruses and tumor cells
    • Produce lymphokines
    • Stimulate (T helper cells) or suppress (T suppressor cells) other cells
  40. What are antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication and activate NK cells and are produced by viral-infected cells?
    Interferon-alpha and Interferon-beta
  41. What has antiviral effects, activates macrophages and NK cells, and stimulates B cells to produce antibodies?
  42. What acivates T helper cells, increases number of B cells, activates vascular endothelium, causes fever and acute phase protein synthesis, and induces T cells to produce lymphokines?
    Interleukin 1 (IL-1)
  43. Where do Pre-B lymphs develop into mature B cells?
    Bone marrow
  44. Where doe Pre-T lymphs develop into mature T cells?
  45. What is the purpose of the spleen?
    Filter blood
  46. What cells do the spleen contain?
    Both T and B cells
  47. What surfaces interact with the environment and can begin the immune response early?
    Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)