Chapter 10 Chemistry

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  1. less dense than a solid or liquid and can be compressed
  2. model for the behavior of a gas
    kinetic molecular theory of gases
  3. gas particles move faster as the temperature
  4. what produces pressure?
    when gas particles hit the walls of the container
  5. higher temperatures mean
    higher pressure
  6. 5 rules of the kinetic molecular theory of gases
    1. a gas consists of small particles that move randomly with rapid velocities

    2. The attractive forces between the particle of a gas can be neglected

    3.  The actual volume occupied by gas molecules is extremely small compared to the volume that the gas occupies

    4. the average kinetic energy of gas molecules  is proportional to the kelvin temperature

    5.  Gas particles are in constant motion, moving rapidly in straight paths
  7. How do gas molecules fill a container of any size and shape?
    Gas particles move far apart
  8. The volume of the container is considered equal to the volume of the
  9. 4 properties of gas
    • 1. Pressure
    • 2. Volume
    • 3. Temperature
    • 4. Amount of gas
  10. The more gas molecules that hit a wall the greater the
  11. The gas molecules of oxygen and nitrogen in the air exert pressure called
    atmospheric pressure
  12. pressure caused by air
    atmospheric pressure
  13. higher altitudes=
    lower atmospheric pressure
  14. why is the atmospheric pressure less in higher altitudes?
    there are fewer molecules of oxygen and nitrogen in the air
  15. most common units used for gas measurements
    • atmosphere (atm)
    • millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
  16. units used for gas measurements in chemistry lab
  17. low temperatures
    decrease the speed of gas molecules, which reduces the pressure
  18. units of volume
    • liters
    • milliliters
  19. in gas law calculation, we need to change grams of gas to
  20. The force exerted by gas against the walls of the container
  21. the space occupied by the gas
  22. determines the kinetic energy and rate of motion of the gas particles
  23. the quantity of gas present in a container
    amount (n)
  24. force acting on a certain area
  25. Pressure (P)=force
    formula for pressure
  26. used to measure atmospheric pressure
  27. inventor of the barometer
    Evangelista Torricelli
  28. the American equivalent of 1 atm is
    14.7 pounds per square inch
  29. at a pressure of 1 atmosphere (atm) the mercury column would be exactly
  30. 1 atm can all be expressed as
    760 torr
  31. the SI unit of pressure
    pascals (Pa)
  32. 1 atm=
    101,325 Pa
  33. weather reports in the US are given in
    inches of Hg (in.Hg)
  34. the lowering of atmospheric pressure often indicates
    rain or snow
  35. atmospheric pressure is greatest at
    sea level
  36. a relationship in which two properties change in opposite directions
    inverse relationship
  37. the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas
    boyle's law
  38. a gas law stating the the pressure of a gas is inversely related to the volume when temperature and moles of the gas do not change; that is, if volume decreases, pressure increases
    boyles law
  39. a gas law stating that the volume of a gas changes directly with a change in kelvin temperature when pressure and moles of the gas do not change
    charles law
  40. the related properties increase or decrease together
    direct relationship
  41. states that the pressure of a gas is directly related to its Kelvin temperature
    Gay-Lussac's law
  42. the pressure exerted by the particles of vapor above a liquid
    vapor pressure
  43. as temperature increases, more vapor _____ and vapor pressure_________
  44. a liquid reaches its boiling point when its vapor pressure becomes equal to the
    external pressure
  45. All pressure--volume--temperature relationships for gases may be combined into a single relationship called
    combined gas law
  46. a gas law that states that the volume of gas is directly related to the number of moles of gas in the sample when pressure and temperature do not change
    avogadros law
  47. standard condition of O degrees Celsius (273 K) temperature and 1 atm pressure used for the comparison of gases
  48. a volume of 22.4 L occupied by 1 mol of a gas at STP conditions of 0 degrees celcius (273 K) and 1 atm
    molar volume
  49. a law that combines the four measured properties of a gas in the equation PV=nRT
    ideal gas law
  50. the pressure a gas would exert if it were the only gas in the container
    partial pressure
  51. total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressure to the gases in the mixture
    daltons law
  52. form of oxygen
  53. ways to increase pressure of a gas
    • 1. increase temp
    • 2. increase number of molecules
    • 3. decrease volume
  54. K=Celsius+273
    Celsius to kelvin equation
  55. the change in the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the change in pressure at a constant temp
    boyles law
  56. p1 v1= p2 v2
    equation for boyles law
  57. the change in temp is volume is directly proportional to the change in temp kelvin--when the amount and temp is constant
    charles law
  58. v1=v2
    ---  ----
    t1    t2
    equation for charles law

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Chapter 10 Chemistry
2013-04-09 19:06:39

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