Pathology II Exam 3

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Pathology II Exam 3
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Pathology II Exam 3
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  1. a decrease in the amount of urine excreted
    oliguria
  2. may indicate kidney failure
    oliguria
  3. complete suppression of urine excretion
    anuria
  4. indicates total kidney failure
    anuria
  5. an increase in the amount of urine excreted
    polyuria
  6. usually an indication of problems somewhere in the body other than the kidneys
    polyuria
  7. may indicate diabetes insipidus
    polyuria
  8. the presence of albumin or protein in urine
    albuminuria
  9. often associated with glomerulonephritis
    albuminuria

    hematuria
  10. hemoglobin in the urine
    hemoglobinuria
  11. associated with hemolytic anemias
    hemoglobinuria
  12. occur due to certain poisons, snake bites, and malaria
    hemoglobinuria
  13. blood in the urine
    hematuria
  14. an important sign in tumors of the urinary system
    hematuria
  15. pus in the urine
    pyuria
  16. indicates a UTI
    pyuria
  17. sugar in the urine
    glycosuria
  18. associated with diabetes mellitius (sugar diabetes)
    glycosuria
  19. the toxic condition of excess urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood
    uremia
  20. associated with renal insufficiency or failure
    uremia
  21. a general term for inflammation of the kidney
    nephritis
  22. a form of nephritis in which the lesions affect primarily the glomeruli
    glomerulonephritis
  23. the filtering capillaries of the kidney
    glomeruli
  24. often follows a previous streptococcal infection

    especially those of the upper respiratory tract
    glomerulonephritis
  25. inflammation of the renal pelvis
    pyelitis
  26. the expanded upper part of the ureter
    renal pelvis
  27. inflammation of the kidney substance and pelvis

    most common kidney disease
    pyelonephritis
  28. caused by pyogenic bacteria that enter the kidney by way of the bloodstream or due to bacteria that have ascended from the bladder after entering through the urethra
    • pyelitis
    • pyelonephritis
  29. a collection of urine in the renal pelvis due to an obstructed outflow
    hydronephrosis
  30. the ureters above an obstruction dilated with urine
    hydroureters
  31. the formation of renal calculi
    nephrolithiasis
  32. kidney stones
    nephroliths
  33. inflammation of the ureters
    ureteritis
  34. the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
    ureters
  35. causes constriction and narrowing
    ureteritis
  36. inflammation of the urinary bladder
    cystitis
  37. usually occurs secondary to ascending urinary tract infections
    cystitis
  38. inflammation of the urethra
    urethritis
  39. the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
    urethritis
  40. generally caused by infections with pyogenic bacteria that work their way up the urinary tract
    • 1. ureteritis
    • 2. cystitis
    • 3. urethritis
  41. a condition in which there is the formation of many cysts in or on the kidney
    polycystic kidneys
  42. enlargement of the cysts compresses the surrounding renal tissue can be caused by this condition
    polycystic kidneys
  43. cysts are prone to infection
    polycystic kidneys
  44. inflammation of the uterus
    metritis
  45. inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium)
    endometritis
  46. inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervix
    endocervitis
  47. ectopic endometrium located in various sites throughout the pelvis or in the abdominal wall
    endometriosis
  48. occurs in pregnant women usually during the third trimester
    preeclampsia
  49. characterized by edema of the extremities and face, high blood pressure and high albuminuria
    preeclampsia
  50. could be caused by a condition called toxemia of pregnancy
    preeclampsia
  51. body views fetus as a toxin
    preeclampsia
  52. there are not really any toxins in the body
    preeclampsia
  53. can lead to convulsions, coma, and death (eclampsia)
    preeclampsia
  54. can lead to convulsions, coma, and death
    preeclampsia
  55. inflammation of the fallopian tubes
    salpingitis
  56. when a fertilized ovum attaches to the wall of the fallopian tube or abdominal surface
    tubal, ectopic or extrauterine pregnancy
  57. embryo will die from lack of blood supply
    tubal, ectopic or extrauterine pregnancy
  58. calcified embryo
    • lithopedion
    • stone child
  59. inflammation of the ovaries
    oophoritis
  60. numerous cysts on or in the ovaries
    polycystic ovaries
  61. a cyst containing elements of hair, teeth or skin
    dermoid cysts
  62. commonly seen in the ovaries and testes
    dermoid cysts
  63. inflammation of the vagina
    vaginitis
  64. can be caused by a gonococcal infection
    vaginitis
  65. can be caused by mechanical irritations such as tight panty hose
    vaginitis
  66. can be caused by chemical irritations and highly irritating uterine discharges
    vaginitis
  67. can be caused by yeasts infections
    vaginitis
  68. caused by the fungus Candida albicans
    yeast infections
  69. commonly seen as a complication of antibiotic therapy
    yeast infections
  70. the normal flora bacteria of the vagina are destroyed, allowing the fungus to grow
    antibiotic therapy
  71. a condition of septicemia following childbirth
    puerperal sepsis
  72. caused by a hemolytic streptococcus
    puerperal sepsis
  73. infection is usually spread by contaminated obstetrical instruments
    puerperal sepsis
  74. inflammation of the mammary glands
    mastitis
  75. a common tumor of the ovaries
    • cystadenoma
    • cystadenocarcinoma
  76. most commonly affect the cervix
    uterine cancer
  77. one of the most common malignancies of women worldwide
    cervical cancers
  78. usually squamous cell carcinomas
    cervical cancers
  79. also a very common tumor
    leiomyoma of the uterus
  80. fibroid tumor
    leiomyoma of the uterus
  81. another of the most common malignancies of women
    carcinoma of the breast
  82. spreads rapidly through the surrounding tissues

    including the blood and lymph vessels in the area
    carcinoma of the breast
  83. often requires surgical removal of the breast and surrounding tissues
    carcinoma of the breast

    mastectomy
  84. inflammation of the testes
    orchitis
  85. may be caused by
    1. trauma
    2. as a complication of the mumps or other infectious disease
    orchitis
  86. if an infection is serious enough, it may cause scarring, atrophy of the testes and sterility
    orchitis
  87. failure of the testes of a testis to descend into the scrotum
    • cryptorchism
    • cryptorchidism
  88. sperm cannot develop properly because of the higher temperature in the pelvic cavity
    • cryptorchism
    • cryptorchidism
  89. sterility is often a consequence
    • cryptorchism
    • cryptorchidism
  90. inflammation of the epididymis
    epididymitis
  91. usually the result of a gonococcal infection
    epididymitis
  92. severe cases could cause scarring and stop the passage of sperm
    epididymitis
  93. varicose veins of the spermatic cord
    varicocele
  94. a fairly common occurrence
    varicocele
  95. muscle organ which surrounds the first part of the urethra
    prostate gland
  96. inflammation of the prostate gland
    prostatitis
  97. usually secondary to urethritis

    often caused by Neisseria gonorrheae and Escherichia coli
    prostatitis
  98. an enlargement of the prostate gland in men 50 and over
    benign prostatic hyperplasia
  99. NOT an inflammatory condition
    benign prostatic hyperplasia
  100. associated with a hormone imbalance
    benign prostatic hyperplasia
  101. the consequence of this is interference with the passage of urine
    benign prostatic hyperplasia
  102. the collection of serous fluid in the scrotum
    hydrocele
  103. may be a complication of orchitis, epididymitis, or improper closure of the opening between the peritoneal cavity and the scrotum
    hydrocele
  104. the term can actually be used to mean the collection of serous fluid in any sacculated cavity of the body
    hydrocele
  105. common in older men
    carcinoma of the prostate
  106. metastasizes rapidly to bone and lymph nodes
    carcinoma of the prostate
  107. tumors of the testes are usually malignant
    carcinoma of the testes
  108. this most commonly affects men in their 20's, 30's, 40's
    carcinoma of the testes
  109. one of the most common and widespread of the STD's
    • non-specific urethritis (NSU)
    • non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU)
  110. most often caused by a chlamydial organism
    • non-specific urethritis (NSU)
    • non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU)
  111. characterized by painful, itchy ulcerations or blisters on the genitals and surrounding areas
    genital herpes
  112. caused by the Herpes simplex II virus
    genital herpes
  113. there is no cure
    genital herpes
  114. a recurrent disease
    genital herpes
  115. caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae
    gonorrhea
  116. characterized by suppuration
    gonorrhea
  117. will lead to sterility if not properly treated
    gonorrhea
  118. caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum
    syphilis
  119. characterized by three stages of development
    syphilis
  120. characterized by a general ulceration called a chancre

    heals after about 4-6 weeks
    • primary stage
    • syphilis
  121. characterized by a generalized red skin rash & mucous patches

    small ulcerations on the mucous membranes
    • secondary stage
    • syphilis
  122. these symptoms indicate the organism has spread throughout the body
    • secondary stage
    • syphilis
  123. will last for 2 - 6 weeks
    • secondary stage
    • syphilis
  124. characterized by areas of necrotic tissue called gumma
    • Tertiary stage
    • syphilis
  125. most commonly affected by this are the nervous and cardiovascular systems
    • Tertiary stage
    • syphilis
  126. can cause several conditions
    • Neurosyphilis
    • Tertiary stage
    • syphilis
  127. damage to the brain causing mental deterioration and paralysis called
    • general paresis
    • Neurosyphilis
    • Tertiary stage
    • syphilis
  128. degeneration of the posterior part of the spinal cord called
    • tabes dorsalis
    • Neurosyphilis
    • Tertiary stage
    • syphilis
  129. tends to affect the arteries

    especially the aorta
    • Cardiovascular syphilis
    • Tertiary stage
    • syphilis
  130. causes inflammation, aneurysms and aortic insufficiency
    • Cardiovascular syphilis
    • Tertiary stage
    • syphilis
  131. postmortem conditions for reproductive system conditions
    • 1. rapid blood coagulation
    • 2. ascites
    • 3. edema
    • 4. infection
  132. inflammation of bone tissue
    osteitis
  133. the formation of cysts and fibrous nodules within bones

    due to a hormone imbalance
    osteitis fibrosa cystica
  134. a chronic inflammation resulting in thickening and deformation
    paget's disease
  135. osteitis deformans
    paget's disease
  136. looks like an overproduction of bone
    paget's disease
  137. inflammation of the bone marrow
    osteimyelitis
  138. bacteria enter by way of broken bones or through the blood or lymph streams
    osteimyelitis
  139. an increase in porosity or loss of bone density
    osteoporosis
  140. most commonly seen in women after menopause
    osteoporosis
  141. bone becomes brittle and tends to break more easily
    osteoporosis
  142. the softening of bone in children
    rickets
  143. due to a deficiency of vitamin D
    rickets
  144. essential for absorption of calcium from the digestive tract
    vitamin D
  145. bones stay soft & deformed
    rickets
  146. long, weight-bearing bones of the leg tend to be bent or "bowed"
    rickets
  147. softening of bones due to faulty calcification in adulthood
    osteomalacia
  148. may be due to a lack of vitamin D
    osteomalacia
  149. inflammation of the outer coverage of bone (the periosteum)
    periostitis
  150. usually due to a bacterial infection
    periostitis
  151. tuberculosis of the vertebral column
    "pott's disease"
  152. vertebrae are destroyed and collapse
    "pott's disease"
  153. produces a humpbacked malformation
    "pott's disease"
  154. a defect in the formation of cartilage in the growth of long bones
    achondroplasia
  155. causes dwarfism
    achondroplasia
  156. a hereditary condition of connective tissue and skeletal structures
    marfan's syndrome
  157. leads to a form of giantism
    marfan's syndrome
  158. an abnormal posterior curvature of the spine
    kyphosis
  159. a humpback
    kyphosis
  160. an abnormal anterior curvature of the spine
    lordosis
  161. a lateral curvature of the spine in opposite directions
    scoliosis
  162. causes an S-shaped curvature
    scoliosis
  163. a break that does not pierce the skin
    • simple fracture
    • closed fracture
  164. a break in which at least a piece of the bone pierces the skin resulting in an open wound
    • compound fracture
    • open fracture
  165. could also be a wound that leads to a bone that is broken
    • compound fracture
    • open fracture
  166. a break in which the bone is splintered or crushed
    comminuted fracture
  167. there must be at least three pieces of bone to constitute this
    comminuted fracture
  168. a break in which the bone is cracked or broken on one side and bent on the other
    greenstick fracture
  169. inflammation of a bursa
    bursitis
  170. small, sac-like structures that contain synovial fluid
    bursa
  171. help to reduce friction in areas where a lot of movement occurs
    bursa
  172. inflammation of a joint
    arthritis
  173. may be either acute or chronic
    arthritis
  174. arthritis could result from (5)
    • trauma
    • tumors
    • allergic reactions
    • degenerative conditions of old age
    • infectious agents (bacteria, fungi, and viruses)
  175. a form of chronic arthritis
    • rheumatoid arthritis
    • osteoarthritis
  176. affects mainly women age 20-40
    rheumatoid arthritis
  177. an inflammatory disease
    rheumatoid arthritis
  178. there is usually bilateral involvement of the hands and wrists
    rheumatoid arthritis
  179. in the later stages the joint may be destroyed and the bones fused together causing a permanent crippling
    • ankylosis
    • rheumatoid arthritis
  180. inability of joint movement
    ankylosis
  181. affects both men and women later in life
    osteoarthritis
  182. a degenerative disease rather than inflammatory
    osteoarthritis
  183. affects the larger, weight-bearing joints
    osteoarthritis
  184. not usually bi-lateral
    osteoarthritis
  185. thought to be associated with "wear and tear" on the joints
    osteoarthritis
  186. an hereditary form of arthritis
    gout
  187. the result of a metabolic problem with uric acid in the body
    gout
  188. deposits urates of sodium crystals around certain joints
    gout
  189. causes an intense and painful inflammation
    gout
  190. A complication of orchitis, epididymitis, or improper closure between the peritoneal cavity and the scrotum is
    hydrocele
  191. A deficiency of Vitamin D may lead to what two conditions?
    • rickets
    • osteomalacia
  192. A hormone imbalance in men may lead to a non-inflammatory interference with the passage of urine. This condilion is known as
    benign prostatic hyperplasia
  193. A urinary tract infection may be indicated by what?
    pyuria
  194. Convulsions, coma and death in pregnancy may be due to what condition?
    eclampsia
  195. Diabetes insipidus may cause what condition of the urinary system?
    polyuria
  196. Diabetes mellitus may cause what condition of the urinary system?
    glycosuria
  197. Edema of the extremities and face with high blood pressure and high albuminuria may be what condition?
    preeclampsia
  198. How does the bone marow become infected in osteomyelitis?
    • broken bones
    • blood or lymph systems
  199. How long will each of the stages of syphilis last?
    • Primary: 4-6 weeks
    • Secondary: 2-6 weeks
    • Tertiary: till death
  200. In whom is osteoporosis most often seen?
    women after menopause
  201. Renal insufficiency will often lead to the condition of what?
    uremia
  202. True or False........Tumors of the testes are rarely malignant.
    false
  203. Urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood is
    uremia
  204. Uterine cancer most often affects what part of the female reproductive system?
    cervix
  205. Uterine cancer usually come in what form?
    squamous cell carcinomas
  206. What 2 conditions may indicate kidney failure?
    • oliguria
    • anuria
  207. What are the four things we listed that may lead to vaginitis?
    • gonococcal infection
    • mechanical irritations
    • chemical irritations
    • highly irritating uterine discharges
    • yeast infections
  208. What are the glomeruli in the kidneys?
    filtering capillaries of the kidneys
  209. What are the other names for kidney stones?
    • nephrolithiasis
    • renal calculi
    • nephroliths
  210. What are the postmortem conditions of reproductive system conditions?
    • rapid blood coagulation
    • ascites
    • edema
    • infection
  211. What are the two listed problems that polycystic kidneys can cause?
    • 1. enlargement of the cysts compresses the surrounding renal tissue
    • 2. cysts are prone to infection
  212. What are the two of the most common malignancies of women worldwide?
    • cervical (uterine) cancer
    • carcinoma of the breast
  213. What causes a yeast infection?
    Candida albicans
  214. What causes gonorrhea?
    Neisseria gonorrheae
  215. What causes syphilis?
    Treponema pallidum
  216. What condition appears to be an overproduction of bone?
    Paget's disease
  217. What condition causes an S-shaped curvature of the spine?
    scoliosis
  218. What condition described thus far causes a form of dwarfism?
    achondroplasia
  219. What condition described thus far causes a form of giantism?
    Marfan's syndrome
  220. What condition is a common complication of antibiotic therapy?
    yeast infection
  221. What condition of the kidneys is associated with hemolytic anernias?
    hemoglobinuria
  222. What condition of the skeletal system commonly causes kyphosis?
    Pott's Disease
  223. What condition of the urinary system often follows a previous streptococcal infdction?
    glomerulonephritis
  224. What condition will cause the vertebrae to be destroyed and collapse?
    Pott's disease
  225. What disease did we discuss in this section that is caused by a hemolytic streptococci?
    puerperal sepsis
  226. What do the bursa do?
     reduce friction
  227. What is a fibroid tumor in women?
    leiomyoma
  228. What is characterized by painful, itchy ulcerations and blisters on and around the
    genitals?
    genital herpes
  229. What is NSU usually caused by?
    a chlamydial organism
  230. What is one of the most common and widespread of the STD's?
    • NSU
    • NGU
  231. What is the difference between the ureters and the urethra?
    ureters between kidneys and bladder, urethra from bladder to outside
  232. What is the expanded upper part of the ureter called?
    renal pelvis
  233. What is the most common kidney disease?
    pyelonephritis
  234. What is usually spread via contaminated obstetrical instruments?
    puerperal sepsis
  235. what may be a complication of the mumps or other infectious disease in men?
    orchitis
  236. What may be an important sign of urinary system tumors?
    hematuria
  237. What may cause sterility in men because of the inability of the sperm to develop in high
    temperatures?
    • cryptorchism
    • cryptorchidism
  238. What occurs in pregnant women usually during the third trimester of pregnancy?
    preeclampsia
  239. What part of the body is most affected by rickets?
    legs
  240. What specific parts of the body does cardiovascular syphilis most often affect?
    aorta
  241. What symptom of syphilis indicates that the organism has spread throughout the body?
    • red skin rash
    • mucous patches
  242. What three conditions are often caused by pyogenic bacteria working their way up the
    urinary tract?
    • 1. ureteritis
    • 2. cystitis
    • 3. urethritis
  243. What two conditions are associated with glomerulonephritis?
    • 1. albuminuria
    • 2. hematuria
  244. What type of arthritis affects both men and women later in life?
    osteoarthritis
  245. What type of arthritis affects the larger, weight-bearing joints?
    osteoarthritis
  246. What type of arthritis causes an intense and painful inflammation?
    gout
  247. What type of arthritis is associatect with wear and tear on the joints?
    osteoarthritis
  248. What type of arthritis is classified as a degenerative disease?
    osteoarthritis
  249. What type of arthritis is classified as an hereditary disease?
    gout
  250. What type of arthritis is classified as an inflammaiory disease
    rheumatoid arthritis
  251. What type of arthritis is due to the deposit of urates of sodium crystals around certain joints?
    gout
  252. What type of arthritis is not usually bilateral?
    osteoarthritis
  253. What type of arthritis is the result of a metabolic problem with uric acid in the body?
    gout
  254. What type of arthritis may cause the joint to be destroyed and the bones to fuse together?
    rheumatoid arthritis
  255. What type of arthritis usualty affects women between 20 ano 40 years of age?
    rheumatoid arthritis
  256. what type of cancer of the reproductive system usually affects older men?
    prostate
  257. What type of cancer of the reproductive system usually affects younger men?
    testicular
  258. What usually causes epididymitis?
    gonococcal infection
  259. When a pregnant woman exhibits symptoms of toxemia but there are not really any toxins
    present, it is the condition of
    toxemia of pregnancy
  260. When will a lithopedion possibly form?
    tubal, ectopic, or extrauterine pregnancy
  261. Where are dermoid cysts commonly seen?
    ovaries & testes
  262. Which of the STD's is a recurrent disease?
    genital herpes
  263. Which type of spine curvature is a humpback?
    kyphosis

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