important terms and definitions for exam 3

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important terms and definitions for exam 3
2013-04-04 16:21:22
physiology exam

exam 3 important terms and definitions for Professor Linton's class at the University of Utah
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  1. muscarinic cholingeric
    • involves ACh
    • a type of ACh receptor that is linked to a g-protein
    • found in the parasympathetic neuroeffector synapse
  2. atrial fibrilation
    • "quivering"/"shaking" of the atria
    • Atrial conctractile cells not contracting synchronized
    • active filling of ventricles will be ineffectual
    • ECG characteristic
  3. hematocrit
    the percent of the body, by volume, that is cellular
  4. venule
    • vessel that is about 0.03 mm in diameter
    • a 0.001 mm thick wall
    • "small vein"
    • intermediate vessel between capillaries and veins
    • contain only connective tissue and epithelium
    • contains no smooth muscle
  5. Boyle's Law
    • Ideal Gas Law
    • PV = constant for a finite amount of gas
    • P1V1 = P2V2¬†
    • If the volume is halved the pressure doubles
  6. aortic valve
    valve that opens to allow ventricular emptying into the aorta

    opens during systole, after ventricular contraction

    valve between the left ventricle and aorta
  7. Sacromere z-line
    backbone of the actin filament

    from one z line to the next z line is one sacromere
  8. myocardial infarction
    • heart attack
    • narrowing of coronary arteries
    • results in loss of blood supply to heart muscle, resulting in death of heart muscle
    • involves platelets that become clogged in narrowed artery
  9. ventricular contraction rate
    a factor that controls blood pressure

    increase/decrease in heart rate will increase/decrease CO, which will cause blood pressure to increase/decrease
  10. ventricular contraction rate
    a factor that controls blood pressure

    when the heart beat "harder", this increase CO, which will cause the blood pressure to rise
  11. Arteriole radius
    a factor that controls blood pressure

    when arterioles constrict/dilate, this causes a changed in the volume space that the blood occupies, therefore an increase/decrease in blood pressure
  12. total blood volume
    a factor that controls blood pressure

    loss/addition of blood will cause more/less volume in the blood space, resulting in and increase/decrease in blood pressure
  13. blood distribution
    a factor that controls blood pressure

    blood pressure is measured in systemic arteries, if the volume in the space increases/decreases it will cause an increase/decrease in blood pressure
  14. XIIa
    a clotting factor that converts inactive XI to XIa
  15. IIIa
    blood clotting factor that binds with VII
  16. IIa
    blood clotting factor that converts inactive I to Ia; converts XIII to XIIIa and converts X to Xa
  17. LaPlace's Law
    P = 2T/r
  18. "DUP" the second heart sound
    the sound that is produced when the semilunar valves close as a result of the turbulent flow of blood through valve just as it closes
  19. MLCK (myosin light chain kinase)
    enzyme in smooth muscle that is activated by calmodulin and phosphorylates myosin heads allowing cross-bridges to form and muscle to contract
  20. (EPO) erythropoietin
    hormone secreted by the kidneys when tissues become hypoxic that stimulates the production of erythrocytes in bone marrow
  21. external intercostal muscle
    muscles that elevate the ribcage and is used in inspiration
  22. skeletal muscle pump
    pumping action that is produced by skeletal muscle through one way valves in systemic veins that occurs when muscle contracts around the vein, propelling blood back to the heart
  23. hemoglobin
    respiratory pigment that consists of 4 heme groups, each associated with a globin subunit that binds to O2

    each hemoglobin molecule can bind up to 4 O2 molecules, which shows a cooperative binding phenomenon
  24. IVC (isovolumic ventricular conctraction)
    the period of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are just beginning systole, resulting in closure of the AV valves but before the opening of the semilunar valves, hence there is no change in volume withing each ventricle
  25. motor unit
    a group of muscle fibers that are all innervated by the tame motor neuron, as a result all muscle fibers within the motor unit either contract together or stay relaxed together
  26. action potential of an autorhythmic cell
    pacemaker potential caused by Na+

    depolarization caused by Ca++

    repolarization caused by K+
  27. residual lung volume
    1 L
  28. expiratory reserve volume
    lung volume of 1 L
  29. tidal volume
    lung volume of 0.5 L
  30. inspiratory reserve
    lung volume 3 L
  31. leukocytes
    • monocytes
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
  32. position of aortic valve during IVC
  33. app. volume in Left ventricle during IVR
    65 mL
  34. pressure in aorta at beginning of ventricular ejection
    70 mmHg
  35. what valve(s) open(s) at the "lub"?
    aortic and pulmonary valves
  36. Does QRS occur at the same time as the "lub"?
  37. Ventricular pressure highest
    at ventricular ejection
  38. aortic pressure highest
    at ventricular ejection
  39. aortic pressure lowest
    at IVC
  40. EKG, when does ventricular systole occur?
    from QRS to T
  41. what compartment does pressure vary in the heart?
    left ventricle
  42. intercalated discs
    zig/zag that connects heart cells and has lots of gap junctions
  43. megakaryocyte
    cell that produces platelets
  44. stale air
    • air consistently found in the alveoli
    • has a PO2 of 100 mmHg and a PCO2 of 40 mmHG
  45. myosin
    protein involved in muscle contraction that has a hinge, ATP binding site where it binds to actin
  46. elephantiasis
    severe edema (swelling) that usually occurs in the lower limbs due to blockage of the lymphatic system by roundworms 

    edema occurs because of net filtration from systemic capillaries
  47. intrapleural fluid
    fluid found between the parietal and visceral pleural membranes

    under constant negative pressure 

    acts as a lubricant
  48. "Dup"
    • the 2nd heart sound
    • produced by closure of the semilunar valves
    • signals the end of ventricular systole
    • corresponds in time with the T wave
    • signals the beginning of ventricular diastole
  49. pulse pressure (PP)
    PP = SP - DP