USMLE term list.txt

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USMLE term list.txt
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USMLE Step1 terms know
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step1 must know terms
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  1. 11-hydroxylase deficiency
    virilism, no cortisol, salt retention, hypertension
  2. Addison’s Disease
    primary adrenocortical deficiency
  3. Addisonian Anemia
    pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells ? ?IF ? ?Vit B12 ? megaloblastic anemia)
  4. Adhesive arachnoiditis:
    Caused by bacterial meningitis, leads to obstructive hydrocephalus
  5. AFP decrease
    Down’s
  6. AFP in amniotic fluid or mother’s serum
    Spina Bifida; Anencephaly
  7. AFP increase
    Neural tube defects, hepatocellular carcinoma, yolk sac and embryonal carcinoma
  8. Albright’s Syndrome
    polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café au lait spots, short stature, young girls
  9. Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation
    Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
  10. Alport’s Syndrome
    hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness, Type 4 collagen defect (basement membranes)
  11. Alzheimer’s
    progressive dementia; tau proteins, neurofibrillary tangles, apolipoprotein E4 allele, narrow gyri and wide sulci (atrophy), occipital sparing, hydrocephalus ex vacuo, plaques in hippocampus and cortex, ? Acetylcholine, Hiramo bodies (inrtacellular inclusion bodies in hippocampal cells)
  12. Amnion nodosum
    Renal agenesis
  13. Amyloid in thyroid
    Thyroid medullary carcinoma (calcitonin)
  14. Analgesic abuse
    Papillary necrosis, esp. in diabetics
  15. Anasarca
    Minimal change disease
  16. Aneurysmal nodules
    Polyarteritis nodosa
  17. Angiomyolipoma
    Tuberous sclerosis
  18. Anosmia
    Kallman’s syndrome
  19. Anterior vermian atrophy
    alcoholism
  20. Anti-centromere antibody
    Limited scleroderma (CREST)
  21. Anti-DNA topoisomerase antibody
    Diffuse scleroderma
  22. Anti-endomysial antibody
    Celiac sprue
  23. Anti-jo antibody
    polymyositis
  24. Anti-mitochondrial antibody
    Primary biliary cirrhosis
  25. Anti-sacharommyces cervisiae antibody
    Crohn’s
  26. Anti-Smith antibodies
    Specific for SLE, anti-ribonulceoprotein
  27. Anti-smooth muscle antibody
    Autoimmune hepatitis type I
  28. Antiplatelet Antibodies
    idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  29. Arachnodactyly
    Marfan’s
  30. Argyll-Robertson Pupil
    loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral), “Prostitute’s Eye” - accommodates but does not react, Pathognomonic for3 Syphilis
  31. Arnold-Chiari Malformation
    cerebellar tonsil herniation
  32. Aschoff Bodies
    rheumatic fever
  33. Ashleaf spots (skin)
    Tuberous sclerosis
  34. Atypical lymphocytes
    EBV
  35. Auer Rods
    acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)
  36. Autosplenectomy
    sickle cell anemia
  37. Babinski
    UMN lesion
  38. Bacterial conjunctivitis
    S. aureus, strep. pneumo, Hemophilus aegyptius
  39. Barrett’s
    columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (* risk of adenocarcinoma)
  40. Bartter’s Syndrome
    hyperreninemia
  41. Basophilic Stippling of RBCs
    lead poisoning
  42. Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy
    similar to Duchenne, but less severe (deficiency in dystrophin protein)
  43. Bell’s Palsy
    CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
  44. Bence Jones Protein
    multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda) Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia
  45. Berger’s Disease
    IgA nephropathy
  46. Bernard-Soulier Disease
    defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein)
  47. Berry Aneurysm
    circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed), often associated with ADPKD
  48. Bilateral breast cancer
    Lobular carcinoma
  49. Bilateral renal cell carcinoma
    Von Hippel-Lindau
  50. Birbeck Granules
    histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
  51. Bladder trabeculation\BPH
  52. Bloody nipple discharge
    Intraductal papilloma
  53. Blue Bloater
    Chronic Bronchitis
  54. Blue Sclera
    Osteogenesis imperfecta
  55. Blueberry muffin baby
    Rubella????
  56. Boot-Shaped Heart
    Tetralogy of Fallot
  57. Bouchard’s Nodes
    osteoarthritis (PIP)
  58. Boutonniere’s Deformity
    rheumatoid arthritis
  59. Bowen’s Disease
    carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (*risk of visceral ca)
  60. Briquet’s Syndrome
    somatization disorder
  61. Broca’s Aphasia
    Motor Aphasia intact comprehension
  62. Bronchiolitis
    RSV
  63. Bronze Diabetes:
    Hemochromatosis
  64. Brown Tumor:
    hyperparathyroidism
  65. Brown-Sequard:
    hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch, UMN)
  66. Brudzinski sign:
    meningitis
  67. Brushfield Spots:
    Down’s, on iris
  68. Bruton’s Disease:
    X-linked agammaglobinemia
  69. Budd-Chiari:
    post-hepatic venous thrombosis
  70. Buerger’s Disease:
    acute inflammation of small, medium arteries * painful ischemia * gangrene
  71. Burkitt’s Lymphoma:
    small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV, 8:14 translocation
  72. Caisson Disease:
    gas emboli
  73. Call-Exner Bodies:
    granulosa cell tumor
  74. Carbon monoxide poisoning:
    hyperemia, edema and necrosis of globus
  75. Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy:
    Chagas’ Disease
  76. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
    Median nerve entrapment
  77. Central Nuclei in Muscle:
    Muscular dystrophies
  78. Chagas’ Disease:
    Trypansoma infection sleeping disease, cardiomegaly with apical atrophy, megaesophagus, megacolon
  79. Chancre:
    1* Syphilis, painless firm ulcers
  80. Chancroid:
    Haemophilus ducreyi, painful soft ulcers
  81. Charcot Triad:
    multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech)
  82. Charcot-Leyden Crystals:
    bronchial asthma
  83. Chediak-Higashi Disease:
    Phagocyte Deficiency: neutropenia, albinism, cranial & peripheral neuropathy
  84. Cherry-red spot on macula:
    Tay-Sachs, 50% of Niemann-Pick
  85. Cheyne-Stokes Breathing:
    cerebral lesion
  86. Chocolate Cysts:
    endometriosis
  87. Cholesterol clefts:
    atherosclerosis
  88. Chordae tendinae short and fused:
    Rheumatic heart disease
  89. Chronic staph infections:
    Chronic granulomatous disease, a deficiency of NADPH oxidase, can’t kill catalase positive bugs
  90. Chvostek’s Sign:
    Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany
  91. Clear nuclei:
    Thyroid papillary carcinoma (Orphan Annie’s eyes)
  92. Clue Cells:
    Gardnerella vaginitis, trichomonas?
  93. Codman’s Triangle:
    osteosarcoma
  94. Coin Lesions in Lung:
    Pulmonary Hamartoma
  95. Cold Agglutinins:
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae; infectious mononucleosis
  96. Cold thyroid nodules:
    Colloid cyst or thyroid adenoma
  97. Concentric laminar intimal fibrosis of small arteries of lung:
    Primary pulmonary hypertension
  98. Condyloma Lata:
    2* Syphilis
  99. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia:
    21-hydroxylase deficiency: virilism, no cortisol, salt loss, hypotension
  100. Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis:
    Polycystic Kidney Disease, juvenile autosomal recessive form
  101. Conn’s Syndrome:
    primary aldosteronism
  102. Contraction Band Necrosis:
    MI
  103. Cori’s Disease:
    glycogen storage disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)
  104. Cotton Wool Spots:
    HTN
  105. Councilman Bodies:
    dying hepatocytes
  106. Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule:
    rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)
  107. Creutzfeldt-Jakob:
    prion infection * cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
  108. Crigler-Najjar Syndrome:
    congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated)
  109. Crohn’s:
    IBD; ileocecum, transmural, skip lesions, lymphocytic infiltrate, granulomas, (contrast to UC: limited to colon, mucosa & submucosa, crypt abscesses, pseudopolyps, * colon cancer risk)
  110. Croup:
    Parainfluenza
  111. Crushed ping pong balls:
    Pneumocystis carinii
  112. Crypt abscesses:
    Ulcerative colitis
  113. Curling’s Ulcer:
    acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
  114. Currant-Jelly Sputum:
    Klebsiella
  115. Curschmann’s Spirals:
    bronchial asthma
  116. Cushing’s Disease:
    hypercorticism 2* to * ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma), Syndrome: hypercorticism of all other causes (1* adrenal or ectopic)
  117. Cushing’s Ulcer:
    acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
  118. Cystathioine synthase deficieny:
    homocystinuria
  119. D-dimers:
    DIC
  120. de Quervain’s Thyroiditis:
    self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
  121. Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra:
    Parkinson’s
  122. Dew drop on rose petal:
    Chicken pox
  123. Diaphragmatic pleural plaques:
    Asbestosis
  124. DiGeorge’s Syndrome:
    thymic hypoplasia * T-cell deficiency
  125. Donovan Bodies:
    granuloma inguinale (STD)
  126. dopamine receptors:
    Schizophrenia
  127. Double bubble sign on ultrasound:
    Down’s syndorme – duodenal atresia
  128. Down’s Syndrome:
    trisomy 21 or translocation
  129. Dressler’s Syndrome:
    Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
  130. Dubin-Johnson Syndrome:
    congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated), striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
  131. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy:
    deficiency of dystrophin protein * MD X-linked recessive
  132. Duret Hemorrhages:
    Uncal herniation
  133. Eburnation:
    osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
  134. Eccentric intimal fibrosis with medial hypertrophy:
    Chronic transplant rejection
  135. Ectopia Lentis:
    Marfan’s
  136. Edwards’ Syndrome:
    trisomy 18, rocker-bottom feet, low ears, heart disease
  137. Ehler’s-Danlos:
    defective collagen
  138. Eisenmenger’s Complex
    late cyanotic shunt (R?L) pulmonary HTN & RVH 2? to long-standing VSD, ASD, or PDA
  139. Embolizing endocarditis
    Infectious, marantic (fibrin deposits in hypercoagulable states)
  140. Erb-Duchenne Palsy:
    trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip
  141. Erythema Chronicum Migrans:
    Lyme Disease
  142. Ewing Sarcoma:
    undifferentiated round cell tumor of bone
  143. Excavation of Optic Cup:
    Glaucoma
  144. Exopthalmos:
    hyperthyroid
  145. Eyrthroplasia of Queyrat:
    carcinoma in situ on glans penis
  146. False positive VDRL:
    SLE, Treponema pertenue (non-STD tropical infection)
  147. Fanconi’s Syndrome:
    impaired proximal tubular reabsorption 2* to lead poisoning or Tetracycline (glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, aminoaciduria, systemic acidosis)
  148. FAT RN:
    TTP (fever, anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, neuro problems)
  149. Fatty Liver:
    Alcoholism
  150. Fecalith:
    Acute appendicitis
  151. Felty’s Syndrome:
    rheumatoid arthritis, neutropenia, splenomegaly
  152. Ferruginous Bodies:
    asbestosis
  153. FEV1/FVC:
    COPD
  154. Fish-mouthed mitral valve:
    Rheumatic heart disease
  155. Flea-bitten Kidney:
    Malignant Hypertension
  156. Frontal bossing:
    Sickle cell anemia
  157. Fungus ball in lung:
    Apergillus
  158. galactosemia:
    Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency or galactokinase deficiency
  159. Gardner’s Syndrome:
    adenomatous polyps of colon plus osteomas & soft tissue tumors
  160. Garlic odor on breath:
    Arsenic (or lasagna)
  161. Gaucher’s Disease:
    Lysosomal Storage Disease glucocerebrosidase deficiency, hepatosplenomegaly, femoral head & long bone erosion, anemia
  162. Ghon Complex:
    Tuberculosis, primary
  163. Gilbert’s Syndrome:
    benign congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated)
  164. GIST:
    Tumor arising in cells of Cajal (pacemakers of gut)
  165. Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia:
    defective glycoproteins on platelets
  166. Glucose, protein in CSF:
    Bacterial meningitis
  167. Gold Pneumonia:
    Lipid pneumonia, exogenous (aspiration) or endogenous (obstruction
  168. Goodpasture’s:
    autoimmune: ab’s to glomerular & alveolar basement membranes; linear immunofluorescence
  169. Gower’s Maneuver:
    Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand
  170. Grave’s Disease:
    autoimmune hyperthyroidism (TSI)
  171. Gray discoloration of skin:
    Argyria (silver poisoning)
  172. Guillain-Barre:
    idiopathic polyneuritis (ascending muscle weakness & paralysis; usually self-limiting)
  173. H shaped vertebrae:
    Sickle cell anemia
  174. Hamman-Rich Syndrome:
    idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  175. Hand-Schuller-Christian:
    chronic progressive histiocytosis
  176. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis:
    autoimmune hypothyroidism (antimicrosomal or antithyroglobulin); Hurthle cells, thyroid germinal centers,
  177. Hashitoxicosis:
    initial hyperthyroidism in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis that precedes hypothyroidism
  178. Hat size increase:
    Paget’s disease of bone
  179. Heart Failure Cells:
    CHF; hemosiderin-laden macrophages in lungs
  180. Heberden’s Nodes:
    Osteoarthritis (DIP)
  181. Heinz Bodies:
    G6PDH Deficiency
  182. Hemarthrosis:
    Coagulation factor deficiency
  183. Hemorrhagic Temporal Lobe Lesion:
    HSV
  184. Hemorrhagic Urticaria:
    Henoch-Schonlein
  185. Henoch-Schonlein purpura:
    hypersensivity vasculitis
  186. Hereditary Spherocytosis:
    RBC cytoskeletin defect, most commonly spectrin
  187. Heterophil Antibodies:
    infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
  188. Hirano Bodies:
    alzheimer’s
  189. Hirschprung’s Disease:
    aganglionic megacolon
  190. HLA B27:
    Ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, IBD, Reiter’s syndrome
  191. Honeycomb lung:
    Pulmonary fibrosis
  192. Horner’s Syndrome:
    ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis (lesion of cervical sympathetic nerves often 2* to a Pancoast tumor)
  193. Howell Jolley Bodies:
    Splenectomy, remnant of nuclear DNA
  194. Human placental lactogen increase:
    Placental site trophoblastic tumor
  195. Hunter’s:
    Decreased iduronosulfate sulfatase
  196. Huntington’s:
    progressive degeneration of caudate nucleus, putamen & frontal cortex; AD
  197. Hurler’s:
    Decreased alpha-L-iduronidase
  198. Hyaline thrombi:
    TTP
  199. Hydrosalpinx:
    Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease
  200. Hypersegmented PMNs:
    Megaloblastic anemia
  201. Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs:
    iron-deficiency anemia
  202. IgM against IgG:
    Rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor)
  203. Index finger overlapping 3rd and 4th: Edward’s
    (Trisomy 18)
  204. dopamine receptors:
    Parkinson’s
  205. ? Immunoglobulins:
    X-linked Brutons agammaglobulinemia, and common variable immunodeficiency
  206. Jacksonian Seizures:
    epileptic events originating in the primary motor cortex (area 4)
  207. Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction:
    Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2? to rapid lysis
  208. Job’s Syndrome:
    immune deficiency: neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli
  209. Joint Mice:
    osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)
  210. Kaposi Sarcoma:
    malignant vascular tumor (HHV8 in homosexual men)
  211. Kartagener’s Syndrome:
    immotile cilia 2? to defective dynein arms infection, situs inversus, sterility
  212. Kussmaul Breathing:
    acidosis
  213. Kawasaki Disease:
    mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (lips, oral mucosa)
  214. Keratin Pearls:
    SCCA
  215. Keratoconjunctivitis:
    adenovirus
  216. Kernig’s sign:
    meningitis
  217. Keyser-Fleischer Ring:
    Wilson’s
  218. Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules:
    diabetic nephropathy
  219. Klinefelter’s Syndrome:
    47, XXY
  220. Kluver-Bucy:
    bilateral lesions of amygdala (hypersexuality; oral behavior)
  221. Koilocytes:
    HPV
  222. Koplik Spots:
    measles
  223. Krabbe Disease:
    Beta-galactosidase deficiency
  224. Krukenberg Tumor:
    adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells (typically originating from the stomach) metastases to the ovaries
  225. Lacunar cells:
    Variant of Reed-Sternberg cell seen in nodular sclerosing Hodgkin’s Disease
  226. Lacunar infarct:
    Chronic hypertension
  227. Laennec’s Cirrhosis:
    alcoholic cirrhosis
  228. Lamellar bodies:
    Contain surfactant in Type II pneumocytes
  229. Langhans giant cells:
    Tuberculosis, other including coccidioides
  230. Lemon sign:
    Ultrasonographic finding in Neural Tube Defects
  231. Lemon yellow skin color:
    Pernicious anemia
  232. Lesch-Nyhan:
    HGPRT deficiency, gout, retardation, self-mutilation
  233. Letterer-Siwe:
    acute disseminated Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis
  234. Leukocoria:
    Retinoblastoma
  235. Leukocyte alk. Phos. Positive:
    leukemoid rxn.
  236. Lewy Bodies:
    Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)
  237. Libman-Sacks:
    endocarditis with small vegetations on valve leaflets, associated with SLE
  238. Lines of Zahn:
    arterial thrombus
  239. Lisch Nodules:
    neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease)
  240. Loss of grey-white junction:
    Tuberous sclerosis
  241. Lou Gehrig’s:
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis degeneration of upper & lower motor neurons
  242. Low set ears:
    Downs, DiGeorge, Trisomy 18 (Edwards)
  243. Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli:
    poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
  244. Machine-like murmur:
    Patent ductus arteriosus
  245. Macronodular cirrhosis:
    Wilson’s, viral hepatitis, alpha-1-antitrypsin
  246. Malignant pustule:
    Anthrax (black skin lesion)
  247. Mallory Bodies:
    Alcoholic liver disease: intermediate filaments of hepatocyte cytoskeleton
  248. Mallory-Weis Syndrome:
    bleeding from esophagogastric lacerations 2* to wretching (alcoholics)
  249. Maple syrup/burnt sugar urine:
    Alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency; valine, leucine and isoleucine build up (branched)
  250. Marfan’s:
    elastin defect, floppy mitral valve, arachnodactyly, cystic medial necrosis, subluxed lens
  251. McArdle’s Disease:
    glycogen storage disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency)
  252. McBurney’s Sign:
    appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)
  253. Meckel’s Diverticulum:
    rule of 2’s: 2 inches long, 2 feet from the ileocecum, in 2% of the population, embryonic duct origin; may contain ectopic tissue (gastric, pancreatic, etc.)
  254. Meconium ileus:
    Cystic Fibrosis
  255. Mees lines:
    Arsenic (parallel lines on fingernails)
  256. Meig’s Syndrome:
    Triad: ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax
  257. Melanosis coli:
    Laxative abuse
  258. Menetrier’s Disease:
    giant hypertrophic gastritis (enlarged rugae; plasma protein loss)
  259. Meningioma:
    Arachnoid cap cells, whorls of cells
  260. Mental probs. with heart defect:
    Mitral prolapse
  261. Mesothelioma:
    Asbestos exposure
  262. Michealis-Gutmann Bodies:
    Malakoplakia, an abnormal tissue response to kidney infection
  263. Microglial nodules:
    HIV
  264. Micrognathia:
    DiGeorge
  265. Micronodular cirrhosis:
    Wilsons, alcoholic, hemochromatosis, primary biliary cirrhosis
  266. Microsatellite instability:
    HNPCC (right-sided colon cancer), but also possible in other cancers
  267. Mid-systolic click:
    Mitral prolapse
  268. Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis:
    calcification of the media (usually radial & ulnar aa.), pipestem arteries
  269. Monoclonal Antibody Spike:
    multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)
  270. Mousy / musty odor:
    PKU
  271. Mucosal bleeding:
    Platelet problem (qualitative or quantitative)
  272. Munchausen Syndrome:
    factitious disorder (consciously creates symptoms, but doesn’t know why)
  273. 273. Myxedema:
    hypothyroidism
  274. Necrolytic migratory erythema dermatitis:
    ?-cell islet tumor
  275. Negri Bodies and hydrophobia:
    rabies
  276. Nelson’s Syndrome:
    1* Adrenal Cushings * surgical removal of adrenals * loss of negative feedback to pituitary * Pituitary Adenoma
  277. Neuritic Plaques:
    Alzheimer’s
  278. Neurofibrillary Tangles:
    Alzheimer’s
  279. Niemann-Pick:
    Lysosomal Storage Disease sphingomyelinase deficiency,“foamy histiocytes”
  280. Night pain relieved by aspirin:
    Osteoid osteoma
  281. Non-embolizing endocarditis:
    Rheumatic, Libman-Sacks (with SLE)
  282. Non-pitting Edema:
    Myxedema, Anthrax Toxin
  283. Notching of Ribs:
    Coarctation of Aorta
  284. Nutmeg Liver:
    CHF, right heart
  285. Ochronosis (dark pigment of fibrous tissue):
    Alkaptonuria –homogentisic acid oxidase deficiency
  286. Oligoclonal band:
    Multiple sclerosis
  287. Onion skin kidney arterioles:
    Malignant nephrosclerosis (malignant hypertension)
  288. Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome:
    Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
  289. Osteogenesis imperfecta:
    Type I collagen defect
  290. Osteoid production:
    osteosarcoma
  291. Paget’s Disease:
    abnormal bone architecture (thickened, numerous fractures * pain) , woven and lamellar bone mosaic
  292. Painless Jaundice:
    pancreatic CA (head)
  293. Palatal Petechaie:
    Strep pharyngitis
  294. Palpable purpura:
    Hypersensitivity vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein, serum sickness)
  295. Pancarditis:
    Rheumatic fever
  296. Pancoast Tumor:
    bronchogenic tumor with superior sulcus involvement * Horner’s Syndrome
  297. Pannus:
    rheumatoid arthritis
  298. Parkinson’s:
    dopamine depletion in nigrostriatal tracts; Cogwheel rigidity
  299. PAS positive macrophages:
    Whipple’s disease
  300. Patent ductus arteriosus:
    Maternal rubella and prematurity
  301. Pautrier’s Microabscesses:
    mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
  302. Periductal edema:
    Gynecomastia
  303. Periventricular Calcifications:
    Congenital CMV (brain ventricles, that is)
  304. Peutz-Jegher’s Syndrome:
    melanin pigmentation of lips, mouth, hand, genitalia plus hamartomatous polyps of small intestine
  305. Peyronie’s Disease:
    subcutaneous fibrosis of dorsum of penis
  306. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency:
    PKU
  307. Philadelphia Chromosome:
    CML
  308. Pick Bodies:
    Pick’s Disease
  309. Pick’s Disease:
    progressive dementia similar to Alzheimer’s, knife-edged gyri
  310. Piecemeal Necrosis:
    Chronic active hepatitis (periportal hepatocytes)
  311. Pink Puffer:
    Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - ?1-antitrypsin deficiency
  312. Pink, foamy lung exudate:
    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
  313. Plexiform lesions:
    Puslmonary HTN (aneurysmal expansion of vessel wall)
  314. Plummer-Vinson:
    esophageal webs & iron-deficiency anemia, ? SCCA of esophagus
  315. Plummer’s Syndrome:
    hyperthyroidism, nodular goiter, absence of eye signs (Plummer’s = Grave’s - eye signs)
  316. Podagra:
    gout (MP joint of hallux)
  317. Pompe’s Disease:
    glycogen storage disease (acid maltase deficiency) * cardiomegaly
  318. Porcelain gallbladder:
    Chronic cholecystitis (scarring)
  319. Porcelain gallstones:
    Associated with gallbladder adenocarcinoma
  320. Port-Wine Stain:
    Hemangioma
  321. Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign:
    tearing of the ACL
  322. Pott’s Disease:
    tuberculous osteomyelitis of the vertebrae
  323. Potter’s Complex:
    renal agenesis * oligohydramnios * hypoplastic lungs, defects in extremities
  324. Proliferating bile ducts:
    Obstructive jaundice
  325. Psammoma Bodies:
    Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary, Meningioma, Mesothelioma
  326. Pseudohypertrophy:
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  327. Pseudopolyps:
    Ulcerative colitis
  328. Pulmonary atherosclerosis:
    Cor pulmonale
  329. Punched-Out Bone Lesions:
    multiple myeloma
  330. Punched-out esophageal lesions:
    herpes
  331. Rash on Palms & Soles:
    2 Syphilis
  332. Raynaud’s Disease:
    recurrent vasospasm in extremities, Phenomenon: 2* to underlying disease (SLE or scleroderma)
  333. RBC poikilocytosis:
    Beta-thalassemia
  334. Rectangular RBC’s:
    Hemoglobin SC
  335. Red hyalin globules:
    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (in liver)
  336. Red Morning Urine:
    paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  337. Reed-Sternberg Cells:
    Hodgkin’s Disease
  338. Reid Index Increased:
    chronic bronchitis
  339. Reinke Crystals:
    Leydig cell tumor
  340. Reiter’s Syndrome:
    urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis non-infectious (but often follows infections), HLA-B27, polyarticular
  341. Reye’s Syndrome:
    microvesicular fatty liver change & encephalopathy, 2* to aspirin ingestion in children following viral illness
  342. Rhomboid crystals:
    Pseudogout
  343. Riedel’s Thyroiditis:
    idiopathic fibrous replacement of thyroid
  344. Rim pattern:
    SLE, staining pattern with anti-double stranded DNA antibodies
  345. Rockerbottom feet:
    Patau (Trisomy 13), Edward’s (Trisomy 18)
  346. Rose thorns:
    Sporotrichosis
  347. Rotor Syndrome:
    congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated), similar to Dubin-Johnson, but no discoloration of the liver
  348. Rouleaux Formation:
    multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips
  349. Rugae loss:
    Pernicious anemia (atrophic gastritis)
  350. S3 Heart Sound:
    L ->R Shunt (VSD, PDA); Mitral Regurg; LV Failure
  351. S4 Heart Sound:
    Pulmonary Stenosis, Pulmonary HTN
  352. Scalloped colloid:
    Grave’s disease
  353. Schwartzman Reaction:
    Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs
  354. Sezary Syndrome:
    leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)
  355. Shagreen patches:
    Tuberous sclerosis
  356. Shaver’s Disease:
    aluminum inhalation ? lung fibrosis
  357. Sheehan’s Syndrome:
    postpartum pituitary necrosis
  358. Shy-Drager:
    parkinsonism with autonomic dysfunction & orthostatic hypotension
  359. Simian Crease:
    Down’s
  360. Simmond’s Disease:
    pituitary cachexia
  361. Sipple’s Syndrome:
    MEN type IIa (pheochromocytoma, thyroid medulla, parathyroid)
  362. Sjogren’s Syndrome: triad:
    dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis? risk of B-cell lymphoma
  363. Smith Antigen:
    SLE (also anti-dsDNA)
  364. Smudge cells:
    CLL (delicate cells easily destroyed on peripheral smear)
  365. Soap Bubble on X-Ray:
    giant cell tumor of bone
  366. Soldiers plaque:
    Clinically insignificant remnant of healed pericarditis
  367. Spider telangiectasia:
    Hyperestrinism: liver failure, pregnancy
  368. Spike & Dome Glomeruli:
    membranous glomerulonephritis
  369. Spitz Nevus:
    juvenile melanoma (always benign)
  370. Splinter hemorrhages:
    Infective endocarditis
  371. Stein-Leventhal:
    polycystic ovary
  372. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome:
    erythema multiforme, fever, malaise, mucosal ulceration (often 2? to infection or sulfa drugs)
  373. Still’s Disease:
    juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (absence of rheumatoid factor)
  374. Strawberry cervix:
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  375. Strawberry gallbladder:
    Cholesterolosis
  376. Strawberry tongue:
    Scarlet fever, Kawasaki’s
  377. String Sign on X-ray:
    Crohn’s bowel wall thickening
  378. Struma Ovarii:
    Thyroid teratoma of ovary
  379. Sugar icing on spleen:
    Portal hypertension Sulfer granules: Collection of actinomyces or nocardia organisms in chronic abscessing bronchopneumonia
  380. Swiss cheese brain:
    Clostridia (gas forming)
  381. Syncitia:
    RSV, measles
  382. Takayasu’s arteritis:
    aortic arch syndrome, loss of carotid, radial or ulnar pulses
  383. Tamm-Horsfall protein:
    Hyaline casts (non-specific)
  384. Target Cells:
    Thalassemia
  385. Tay-Sachs:
    gangliosidosis (hexosaminidase A deficiency * GM2 ganglioside)
  386. Teardrop RBCs:
    myelofibrosis
  387. Temporal lobe encephalitis:
    Herpes
  388. Tendinous Xanthomas:
    Familial Hypercholesterolemia
  389. Tethered cord:
    Arnold-Chiari malformation (tonsilar herniation)
  390. Tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor def.:
    PKU
  391. Tetralogy of Fallot:
    VSD, overriding aorta, pulmonary artery stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy
  392. TGI > TSI:
    Hashimoto’s
  393. Thymidine dimers:
    Xeroderma pigmentosum
  394. Thymus, parathyroid agenesis:
    Digeorge (3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouch)
  395. Thyroidization of Kidney:
    chronic pyelonephritis
  396. TIBC increase:
    Anemia of chronic disease
  397. Tingible Bodies:
    Macrophage in lymph node germinal centers
  398. Tophi:
    gout
  399. Tourette’s Syndrome:
    involuntary actions, both motor and vocal
  400. Tram-Track Glomeruli:
    membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  401. Tree bark aorta:
    Syphilis
  402. Trousseau’s Sign:
    visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis), hypocalcemia (carpal spasm) (These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs, but they unfortunately have the same name.)
  403. TSI > TGI:
    Grave’s
  404. Turcot’s Syndrome:
    adenomatous polyps of colon plus CNS tumors
  405. Turner’s Syndrome:
    45, XO
  406. Typhoid Fever:
    Bradycardia and in white people rose spots on abdomen
  407. Tyrosinase deficiency:
    Albinism
  408. Uric Acid:
    Gout, Lesch Nyhan, Myeloproliferative Disorders, Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)
  409. Vincent’s Infection:
    “trench mouth” - acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  410. Virchow’s Node:
    supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
  411. VMA and metenephrins in urine:
    Pheochromocytoma
  412. von Gierke’s Disease:
    glycogen storage disease (G6Pase deficiency)
  413. von Hippel-Lindau:
    hemangioma (or hemangioblastoma), adenomas of the viscera, especially renal cell carcinoma
  414. von Recklinghausen’s:
    neurofibromatosis & café au lait spots & Lisch nodule (iris hamartomas)
  415. von Recklinghausen’s Disease of Bone:
    osteitis fibrosa cystica (“brown tumor”) 2* to hyperparathyroidism
  416. von Willebrand’s Disease:
    defect in platelet adhesion 2* to deficiency in vWF; increased bleeding time and PTT
  417. Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia:
    proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells
  418. Wallenberg’s Syndrome:
    Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) thrombosis “Medullary Syndrome”,
  419. Ipsilateral:
    ataxia, facial pain & temp; Contralateral: body pain & temp
  420. Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells:
    Measles
  421. Waterhammer pulse:
    Aortic regurgitation
  422. Waterhouse-Friderichsen:
    catastrophic adrenal insufficiency 2* to hemorrhagic necrosis (eg, DIC), often 2* to meningiococcemia
  423. WBC Casts:
    pyelonephritis
  424. Weber’s Syndrome:
    Paramedian Infarct of Midbrain, Ipsilateral: mydriasis; Contralateral: UMN paralysis (lower face & body)
  425. Wegener’s Granulomatosis:
    necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of paranasal sinuses, lungs, kidneys, etc.
  426. Weil’s Disease:
    leptospirosis
  427. Wermer’s Syndrome:
    MEN type I (thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex, pancreatic islets, pituitary)
  428. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome:
    thiamine deficiency in alcoholics; bilateral mamillary bodies (confusion, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia)
  429. Wernicke’s Aphasia:
    Sensory Aphasia impaired comprehension
  430. Whipple’s Disease:
    malabsorption syndrome (with bacteria-laden macrophages) & polyarthritis
  431. White matter petechiae:
    Fat emboli
  432. Wilson’s Disease:
    hepatolenticular degeneration (copper accumulation & decrease in ceruloplasmin)
  433. Winged scapula:
    Long thoracic nerve (C5,6,7) damage, common with radical mastectomy
  434. Wire Loop Glomeruli:
    lupus nephropathy, type IV
  435. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome:
    immunodeficiency: combined B- &T-cell deficiency (thrombocytopenia & eczema)
  436. Wolff-Chaikoff Effect:
    high iodine level (*)’s thyroid hormone synthesis
  437. Wrinkled glomerular basement membrane:
    ischemia
  438. Zenker’s Diverticulum:
    esophageal; cricopharyngeal muscles above UES
  439. Zollinger-Ellison:
    gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas (or intestine) * * acid * intractable ulcers

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