Chapter 8 Review
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What are the special senses?
Smell, taste, sight, hearing, and equilibrium
What are special sense receptors?
They are organs that are either complex systems or localized receptor cells
What are eyelids?
Eyelids are flaps of skin that cover the eyes which meet at the medial and lateral corners of the eyes
What are eyelashes?
Hairs that extend from the border of the eyelash and cover the eye
What are the meibomian glands?
Glands that secrete oil, they are located inside of the eyelid and lubricate the eyelashes
What are Ciliary Glands?
Modified sebacious glands that secrete sweat, they are located between the eyelashes
What is the conjunctiva?
A membrane that seperates the eyelid from the eyeball itself it secretes mucus keeping the eyeball moist
What is the Lacrimal Apparatus
A part of the eye that consists of the lacrimal gland and contains ducts that drain lacrimal secretions
What are Lacrimal Glands?
Glands that are located laterally in each eye. They secrete tears.
What are tears conmprised of?
Tears are a dilute salt solution which also contains lysozyme, a bacteria lysing enzyme
What is the pathway of a teardrop?
Lacrimal canal -> Lacrimal Sac -> Nasolacrimal duct
Name the extrinsic eye muscles
- Lateral Rectus
- Medial Rectus
- Superior Rectus
- Inferior Rectus
- Inferior Oblique
- Superior Obilque
What is the eyeball composed of?
- - Exterior= Three tunics (coats), Iris
- - Interior= Humors
What is the Sclera?
The outermost protective layer. It is also called the "fiberous tunic"
What is the cornea?
The part of the eye with the most pain receptors.
What is the Choroid?
The blood rich middle tunic that is dyed black in order to prevent scattering light
What is the Ciliary Body?
The part of the Choroid that holds the lens in place
What is the retina?
The innermost layer of the eyeball, it contains rods and cones
What are rods and cones?
They are photoreceptors that respond to various optical stimuli
What is a "blind spot"?
An area with a low concentration of cones located at the sides of the eyes
What is the Fovea Centralis?
The tiny pit that contains only cones, located laterally to the blind spot
What is Color Blindness?
The disability to diffenciate between two adjacent colors
What is the lens?
A part of the eye that focuses light that coms into the eye.
What are the two humors?
- The vitreous humor= The jelly like interior
- The aqueous humor= The watery humor
What are mechanoreceptors?
Receptors that respond to kinetic force
Name the parts of the outer ear
Pinna/Auricle, External auditory canal, Ceruminous glands and the tympanis membrane/eardrum
What is the function of the ceruminous glands?
To secrete earwax, a lubricating and protective wax
Name the parts of the Middle ear/Tympanic cavity
oval window, round window, auditory tube, and ossicles
What is the order of the ossicles
Hammer -> Anvil -> Stirrup
What is the function of the auditory tube?
The function is to maintain a pressure equilibrium within the tympanic cavity, this optimizes the vibrations in the cavity.
What are the components of the inner ear?
Osseous, cochlea, vestibule and the Semicircular canal
What is the fluid in the osseous?
What is contained in the perilymph?
The membraneous labyrinth which also contains a thicker fluid, the endolymph
What is the organ of Corti?
The organ that contains hair cells for detecting minute vibrations.
What is static equilibrium?
The vestibular compensation for the pull of gravity and planetary spin.
How is equilibrium reached in the ear?
By using otoliths which are hairs suspended in jelly. Motion causes the jelly to move across the hair.
What is dynamic equilibrium?
Motion detected by the semi-circular canals it works by detecting opposite directionality, the vestibular nerve then reverse encodes creating a correct response.
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