pathology midterm a through h

Card Set Information

Author:
boydensuperstar
ID:
211491
Filename:
pathology midterm a through h
Updated:
2013-04-07 22:16:37
Tags:
pathology massage
Folders:

Description:
pathology cards for massage midterm
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user boydensuperstar on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. abortion - define
    spontaneous (miscarriage) or induced expulsion of products of conception from uterus before 20 weeks of pregnancy
  2. abortion - weeks
    • 0-12 weeks - first trimester
    • 12-28 weeks - second trimester
    • 28 - 40 weeks - third trimester
  3. acne vulgaris - define
    • chronic inflammatory skin disorder
    • affecting sebaceous glands and hair follicles
    • ; lesions on face and neck; sometimes back, shoulders, and neck
    • teens and young adults
  4. Acne conglobata
    (middle age): lesions on face, trunk, and thighs
  5. Acne rosacea
    (middle age, older): lesions over nose, cheeks, forehead
  6. achondroplasia - signs and symptoms
    short stature and abnormal body proportions, limbs disproportionate, thick/deformed bones with abnormal angles at knees and elbows
  7. HIV/AIDS - Massage Recommendations
    • Do not massage with fever
    • Wear gloves and avoid open wounds
    • Do not massage with open wounds
  8. Adhesive Capsulitis - Define
    Frozen Shoulder - disorder of shoulder joint caused by tightening of joint capsule
  9. Alopecia - define
    • partial or complete loss of hair on
    • scalp
  10. Androgentic Alopecia
    • women - crown
    • men - hairline
  11. Alopecia areata
    patches of baldness on scalp, may progress to total hair loss
  12. Anaphylaxis - definition
    • severe, systemic allergic reaction
    • to an antigen in a previously sensitized individual on subsequent exposure to
    • the antigen
  13. Anaphylaxtic Shock - Signs, Symptoms, What to do?
    Breathing issues, red, itchiness, naseua, vomiting, tightness in chest, use an Epi Pen
  14. Anemia - define and recognition
    • abnormally low level of hemoglobin
    • in the blood
    • - pallor (pale), eyes yellow or red
    • - fatigue, listless, inability to concentrate
    • - short on breath
  15. Angina Pectoris - define
    • form of heart disease characterized
    • by a shortage of oxygen to the walls of the heart, due to an inadequate blood
    • supply
  16. Difference between Angina and Heart Attack
    • angina - form of heart disease characterized
    • by a shortage of oxygen to the walls of the heart, due to an inadequate blood
    • supply, recurring pain over chest, jaw or arm, short duration

    • heart attack -death of myocardial tissue from
    • arterial blockage, resulting from insufficient blood flow in coronary arteries - suffocating, left arm, jaw and neck pain
  17. Angioedemia - define & signs
    • allergic skin reaction characterized by localized excess fluid under the skin, often occurring in
    • association with urticaria (hives)

    red, edematous pattern on skin
  18. Ankylosing Spondylitis - define and signs
    chronic inflammatory disease of axial skeleton

    • fibrosis, calcification, stiffening of joints
    • rigid spine with bamboo-like appearance
    • low back pain, kyphosis, weight loss, fatigue
  19. Appendicitis - define and symptoms
    • Inflammation of the vermiform
    • appendix, usually caused by twisting and tearing of appendix
    • - pain in sternum and lower right side
    • - fever, nausea, vomit
    • - client walks slightly bent over
  20. location of appendix
    right side, pain on right side or in middle of stomach
  21. Arrhythmia - define
    changes in the normal rate or rhythm of heartbeat
  22. Normal Heart Rate
    between 60 and 100 bpm
  23. bradycardia
    arrhythmia where the beats are less than 60bpm
  24. tachycardia
    arrhythmia where the beats are over 100 bpm
  25. arthritis - gouty, define
    • metabolic disorder marked by
    • inflammation of joints and deposition of uric acid crystals in joints
    • caused by alcohol, food (kidney, liver, anchovies)
  26. arthritis - osteoarthritis
    chronic degenerative joint disease
  27. arthritis - infective
    • inflammation of joints due to a
    • bacterial infection
  28. arthritis - rheumatoid
    • autoimmune disease that affects
    • multiple systems, producing degenerative changes in connective tissue and
    • inflammatory vascular lesions
    • usually bilateral
  29. asthma - signs and symptoms of an attack
    reversible hyperreactivity of bronchi to a variety of stimuli; narrowing and inflammation of air passages causes breathing difficulty

    • - difficulty breathing
    • - bronchoconstriction
    • - narrowing of airways
  30. How asthma works
    airway obstruction -> increased resistance to airflow -> decreased air expired -> hyperinflation of lungs and thorax -> increased energy needed for breathing and use of accessory muscles -> less oxygen availability
  31. atherosclerosis - define & prevention
    • buildup of plaque in inner walls of
    • arteries

    diet and exercise
  32. anorexia - define
    • eating disorder characterized by
    • self-imposed starvation
  33. bulimia - define
    • eating disorder characterized by
    • cycles of eating binges
  34. 4 types of lower back pain
    • 1. gluteus minimus and medius
    • 2. gluteus maximus, sacrospinous, and sacroiliac 
    • 3. QL
    • 4. iliopsoas
  35. back pain - treat gluteus medius and minimus
    side lying, broad scoops followed by deeper between GT and Iliac Crest
  36. back pain - gluteus maximus, sacrospinous and sacroiliac treatment
    short inferior to superior scoop from sacrum to coccyx
  37. back pain - QL treat
    start from above iliac crest, lateral to erector spinae, inching to 12th rib
  38. back pain - iliopsoas treatment
    supine, knees flexed, strokes parallel to inguinal ligament
  39. Bell's Palsy - define and symptoms
    • disease of seventh cranial nerve
    • (facial nerve) that results in paralysis of one side of face
    • - droop face
    • - diminished taste and hypersensitive to sound
  40. bedsores - define, cause
    • ulceration (erosion) of skin and
    • underlying structures due to excessive pressure
    • - little movement, thus pressure ulcers are created
  41. Bronchitis - Define, risk
    • acute or chronic inflammation of
    • bronchi and trachea
    • risks - parents who smoke, asthma, and emphysema
  42. Bunion - define and prevent
    • formation and inflammation of an
    • adventitious bursa over first metatarsal

    eliminate friction
  43. Burns - three kinds and definitions
    • 1st degree - red skin
    • 2nd degree - blistering and destruction of epidermis
    • 3rd - dermis and epidermis involved, loss of fluids
  44. Burns - massage recs
    • contraindicated for unhealed skin
    • - use friction or finger kneading over scars
  45. bursitis - define, caused, treatment
    • inflammation of a bursa, the
    • fluid-filled sac that cushions pressure and friction in joints
    • cause - trauma, gout, infection from adjacent structures
    • treat - cold packs, massage surrounding muscles with friction @ right angles
  46. bursitis - ankle - names
    • anterior achilles bursitis
    • retrocalcaneal bursitis
    • posterior achilles tendon bursitis
  47. bursitis - elbow; names
    • olecranon bursitis
    • student's elbow
    • dart thrower's elbow
    • miner's elbow
  48. bursitis - knee - other names
    • anserine bursitis
    • prepatellar bursitis 
    • housemaid's knee
    • bricklayer's knee
  49. bursitis pelvis - other names
    • iliopectineal bursitis
    • ischial bursitis
    • weaver's bottom
    • bench warmer's bursitis
    • trochanteric bursitis
  50. bursitis - shoulder; other names
    • subdeltoid bursitis
    • subacromial bursitis
  51. callosities - define, where do they happen
    • thickening of skin due to repeated rubbing and or pressure
    • - aka corn or calvus
    • - happens on foot
  52. breast cancer - signs/symptoms
    • screening
    • mass in armpit or chest, refer to physician  
    • symptoms
    • - lump, redness/heat, discharge out of nipple
  53. Skin Cancer - ABCDE
    • A - asymmetry - when half does not match
    • B - border - border ragged or irregular
    • c - color - color varies
    • d - diameter - larger than a pencil eraser
  54. skin cancer - types
    basal cell epithelioma - pinkish, smooth swelling with blood vessels over lesions

    squamous cell carcinoma - palpable swelling

    melanomas irregular growth from a mole.
  55. skin cancer - causes
    • UV exposure
    • malignant changes in cells
    • radiation exposure
  56. carbuncles - define and look like
    bacterial infection of the skin affecting several hair follicles 

    appears as a single or cluster or pustules beneath the epidermis.
  57. carpal tunnel syndrome - define, symptom
    collective impairments by compression of medial nerve

    • - pain in wrist, numbness of thumb and or fingers, thenar muscle atrophy
    • - clumsy in hand movements for fine coordination
  58. cubital tunnel syndrome - define;symptoms
    entrapment of ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel

    • symptom - pain/paresthesia, numbness in pinky
    • - dull ache after using hand, pain above/below elbow
    • - muscle wasting, trouble forming fist
    • - tingle when pressure applied to the nerve
  59. cerebral palsy - definition
    • group of disorders arising early in
    • life that are cerebral (CNS) in origin, nonprogressive, and characterized by chronic
    • movement or posture abnormalities
  60. cirrhosis - define, risks, progression
    • chronic disease of the liver marked by fibrosis of the liver tissue
    • - alcoholism, hep, reaction, autoimmune
    • - progression - 1.dams blood in abs, 2. accumulation of liquid, 3. dilation of esophogus, 4. affects nervous system
  61. common cold - define, signs/symptoms
    • acute inflammation of upper
    • respiratory tract due to a viral infection
    • - incubation 1-4 days
    • - sore throat, nasal congestion, cough, fever, body ache, lethargy, joint pain
  62. conjunctivitis - define, contagious?
    • inflammation of conjunctiva, the
    • mucous membrane that lines external surface of eyeball and inner surface of
    • eyelids
    • contagious if from infection
  63. Contusion - define; symptoms
    injury to surface of brain following head injury

    - dizzy, vomit, unsteadiness, blurred vision, memory loss, speech disorder, drowsy, convulsion, coma
  64. cushing's syndrome - define, cause, massage rec
    • spectrum of abnormalities produced by secretion of adrenocortical hormones
    • cause - excess cortisol secretion from increase ACTH
    • signs - muscle weak, bruising, buffalo hump, moon face, truncal obesity, irritability
  65. cyanosis - define, dangers
    • blue discoloration of skin and
    • mucous membranes from increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood
    • - less oxygen
    • - slow blood flow
  66. diarrhea - define, cause, signs
    • frequent passage of loose, watery
    • stools

    - infection, lactase, magnesium, inflammation

    IV drug users and nonhygenic sex

    • acute - 7-14 days
    • chronic - 2-3 weeks
  67. dislocation - define, areas
    • disturbance to normal relationship
    • of bones in a joint, resulting in complete displacement of articulating
    • surfaces
    • - glenohumeral, acromioclavicular, metacarpal, interphalangeal
  68. diverticular disease - define, prevent
    • intestinal disorder characterized by present of dicerticula, bulges that protrude thru muscular walls of GI tract. 
    • fiber, constipation, diet and exercise
  69. down syndrome - define, signs
    • genetic, congenital disorder marked
    • by mental and physical impairments marked by 3 copies of chromosone 21

    - mental, slanted eyes, tongue, small skull, short stature
  70. Dupuytren's Contracture - define, signs
    • progressive, painless thickening
    • and tightening of palmar aponeurosis, resulting in flexion contracture
    • of fourth and fifth fingers

    - small thick nodules of palm in ring finger, dimpled skin, 4th and 5th finger remain flexed at joints, inflammation on extension, bilateral
  71. ectopic pregnancy - define, sign, massage
    • implantation of fetus outside the
    • uterine cavity

    - ab pain, vag bleeding, dizzy, rupture of tube, bleeding

    - do not massage ab, do not massage high risk pregnancy
  72. edema - define, cause
    • collection of excess fluid in
    • intercellular spaces of body

    • 1. blood flow block
    • 2. capillary dilation
    • 3. lymphatic obstruction (filariasis)
    • 4. reduced plasma proteins
  73. emphysema - define
    a progressive chronic lung disease marked by damage to the air sacs and los of elasticity in alevolar walls, leading to collapsed airways
  74. fever - define, cause
    • increase in body temp above normal (98.6)
    • - pyrogens, substances that cause fever, include microogranisms, substances reach the hypothalamus and reset the temp
  75. fibroadenoma - define
    abnormal growth in breast; benign
  76. fibroid - define, symptoms
    • abnormal growth in muscles of uterus
    • - can cause bleeding, swelling
    • - do not massage if lower ab is swollen
  77. fibromyalgia - define
    • chronic condition causing musculoskeletal pain
    • - muscle pain, tired, aches, joint stiffness
  78. folliculitis - define
    • bacterial infection of the hair follicles
    • - caused by staph
  79. gallstones - define; cause
    • cholelithiasis
    • formation of stones (calculi) in the gallblader (high fat and cholesterol)
  80. ganglion cysts - define; cause, massage
    • superficial cysts growth
    • - filled with clear viscuous fluid
    • - no special concern, if surgery, then massage around
  81. gangrene - define 3 types
    • local death of soft tissue
    • 1. dry gangrene - reduced arterial blood flow to tissue
    • 2. wet gangrene - blocked venous drainage from tissue
    • 3. gas gangrene - tissue infection by clostridium backteria
  82. genu valgum - define
    inward curving of lower leg at knee - vit d deficient
  83. genu varum - define
    outward bowing of the lower leg at knee - vit d deficient
  84. hayfever - define, causes, chemicals
    • inflammation of mucous membranes of
    • nose and eyes that occurs seasonally from allergic reactions

    - hypersensitivity to antigens producing antibodies, antigen-antibody r(x) and mast cell degranulation

    - antihistamines
  85. headaches - 4 types
    • 1. sinus
    • 2. cluster
    • 3. tension
    • 4. migraine
  86. cluster headache - define, cause, treat
    • headaches of short duration that
    • recur for limited periods of time (10 min - 120min)

    • related to vasodilation of blood
    • unilateral to eye and nose on one side

    - ice, massage head, shoulder, neck
  87. migraine headache - define, cause, treat
    • throbbing pain in head that is
    • often confined to one side, is sometimes accompanied by an aura, and is
    • provoked by stimuli

    • increased permeability of blood vessels
    • - pain on one side and spreads, flashing, dark spots, nausea, vomit, hypersensitivity
    • treated with drugs
  88. tension headache - cause, define, treat
    • pain in head, face, and/or neck
    • region resulting from muscle contraction and psychological factors

    • cause - contraction/spasm of neck or scalp
    • bilateral, tightness around head

    treat with moist heat, effleurage, friction and vibration to neck.
  89. heart attack - define
    • death of myocardial tissue from
    • arterial blockage, resulting from insufficient blood flow in coronary arteries

    suffocating, squeezing left arm, jaw, nausea, vomit, indigestion, palpitations, anxiety
  90. hemangioma - define, cause
    type of benign vascular tumor

    abnormal growth of vascular tissue that is confined to specific areas and does not spread to other organs around head, neck, brain and liver.
  91. hemophilia - what is it, pattern
    hereditary bleeding disorder resulting from absence of a specific clotting factor in blood, lack of clotting factor VIII or IX

    females carrier, males get it
  92. hepatitis - define, most common types, signs
    inflammation of the liver

    • A - fecal oral route - infectious
    • B - cirrhosis - blood, serum or plasma
    • C - acute or chronic - blood
    • D - B associated
    • E - fecal-oral route but short lived

    muscle joint, pain, inflammation in liver area (upper right area), jaundice
  93. hernia - 3 areas, emergency, medical
    • hernia - femoral - women at top of leg
    • hernia - inguinal - men at abdominal cavity or leg
    • hernia - umbilical - at naval 

    do not massage
  94. herpes simplex - define, where at
    an infection of various organs caused by the herpes simplex virus

    • - simplex 1 - mouth
    • simplex 2 - genitals
  95. herpes zoster - define, treatment
    • viral infection of spinal or
    • cranial nerves, affecting one or more dermatomes
    • shingles
    • antiviral drugs
  96. hives - define, treat
    • itchy outbreak of rashes on skin
    • antihistamines, cortocoticoids
  97. heart failure - define, signs
    • syndrome in which heart is unable
    • to adequately respond to body’s demands

    difficulty breathing, rapid heart beat

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview