H Chem: Unit 4

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Gymnastxoxo17
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211512
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H Chem: Unit 4
Updated:
2013-04-04 22:23:47
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Chemical formula writing
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  1. molecules vs. compounds
    • molecules are two or more atoms bonded together
    • compounds are two or more elements bonded together
  2. covalent vs. ionic bond
    • covalent: bond made by sharing e-s
    • ionic: bond made by gaining or losing e-s, opposite charges attract
  3. electrostatic attraction
    the attraction that makes opposite charges attract
  4. diatomic molecules
    pairs of elements in their elemental state
  5. binary molecules
    two nonmetal elements
  6. simple binary ionic compounds
    metal (from main group) - nonmetal
  7. polyatomic ions
    ions made with many atoms, covalently bonded
  8. types of acids
    binary acids and oxyacids
  9. binary acids
    HX general form, H+1= hydrogen ion/proton, X= anion (nonmetal) from main group
  10. acids vs. bases
    • acid: proton donor, gives off lots of H+
    • base: resistant to give off H+
  11. organic chemistry
    the chemistry of carbon
  12. alkanes
    simplest organic compounds, single bond carbon chains (one pair shared e-s), with hydrogen attached to the carbon
  13. formula for hydrocarbon
    CnH2n+2
  14. CH4
    methane
  15. C2H6
    ethane
  16. C3H8
    propane
  17. C4H10
    butane
  18. C8H18
    octane
  19. formula writing for alkanes: formula to name
    find prefix according to carbon number, add -ane
  20. alkane carbon # prefixes 1-10
    • 1: meth-
    • 2: eth-
    • 3: prop-
    • 4: but-
    • 5: pent-
    • 6: hex-
    • 7: hept-
    • 8: oct-
    • 9: non-
    • 10: dec-
  21. alkines
    the same thing as alkanes except there is a double bond and therefore a H atom is removed
  22. chemical formula writing for alkines: formula to name
    find prefix according to carbon atom #, then add -ine
  23. alcohol
    in an alkane, adding a OH compound instead of an H makes it an alcohol
  24. chemical formula writing for alcohol: formula to name
    find prefix according to carbon atom #, add -anol or -yl alcohol
  25. amino acid formula
    • R
    •        |
    • NH2-C-COOH
    •        |
    •        H
  26. Nonmetal-nonmetal: formula to name
    • prefixes in front of element names (no "mono" for first element)
    • second element ends in -ide
  27. Nonmetal-nonmetal: name to formula
    • use prefixes to find subscripts
    • do not reduce
  28. main group metal-nonmetal: formula to name
    • first element name
    • second element ending in -ide
  29. main group metal-nonmetal: name to formula
    determine the ionic charges, find the absolute value, switch onto subscripts, and reduce ratio
  30. transition metal (d block or under metalloid line) - nonmetal: formula to name
    • find charge of transition metal by setting up equation
    • (transition metal subscript)x + (nonmetal subscript)(its charge) = 0
    • Transition metal (charge in Roman numerals) + nonmetal-ide
  31. transition metal (d block or under metalloid line) - nonmetal: name to formula
    determine the ionic charges, find the absolute value, switch onto subscripts, and reduce ratio
  32. nonmetal-polyatomic anion: formula to name
    • identify nonmetal and polyatomic ion using chart
    • if the second element is not a polyatomic ion, add -ide
  33. nonmetal-polyatomic anion: name to formula
    determine the ionic charges, find the absolute value, switch onto subscripts (use parentheses on polyatomic ions), and reduce ratio
  34. binary acids: formula to name
    hydro(nonmetal-ic) acid
  35. binary acids: name to formula
    determine the ionic charges, find the absolute value, switch onto subscripts (use parentheses on polyatomic ions), and reduce ratio
  36. oxyacids
    binary acids containing oxygen
  37. oxyacids: formula to name
    • find the polyatomic ion ignoring H
    • change -ate to -ic and -ite to -ous
    • add "acid"
  38. oxyacids: name to formula
    • change the polyatomic ion ending from -ic to -ate and -ous to -ite
    • find H+ charge and polyatomic ion charge, find absolute value, switch onto subscripts, and reduce ratio
  39. molecular compound prefixes
    • 1: mono-
    • 2: di-
    • 3: tri-
    • 4: tetra-
    • 5: penta-
    • 6: hexa-
    • 7: hepta-
    • 8: octa-
    • 9: nona-
    • 10: deca-
    • 11: undeca-
    • 12: dodeca-

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