Design II Vocabulary

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MichelleZahn
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Design II Vocabulary
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2010-07-14 12:13:56
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Design II Vocabulary
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Design II Vocabulary
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  1. Concertina Wire
    Barbed wire clipped together at intervals to form cylinders and used as an obstacle; sometimes called razor ribbon.
  2. Window Foil
    Aluminum foil strips that are part of an electrical circuit and are used in alarm systems; when torn or broken, the electrical current is disrupted and the alarm sounds.
  3. Rekeying
    Changing the locks to make the old keys useless.
  4. Dedicated
    Given over to a particular purpose.
  5. Incident Response Commander
    A senior emergency response official who assumes control of an incident scene beyond the first responder awareness level and who takes charge of the incident command system.
  6. Code
    Documented requirements adopted by a legally empowered legislative body, such as a city or state government.
  7. Standard
    A document that contains specific details of design or construction methods.
  8. Model Code
    A code devloped by a privately owned, nationally recognized organization whose membership consists of individuals interested in the advancement of health and safety for building occupants.
  9. Check Valve
    A device that permits water to flow only one direction.
  10. Riser
    Primary supply line.
  11. Escutcheon Plates
    Protective or ornamental plate or flange.
  12. Stratification
    When smoke can no longer rise because it is the same temperature as the surrounding area.
  13. Pitot Tube
    A tube with a short right-angled bend placed vertically in a moving body of fluid to measure the velocity of the flow.
  14. Electricity
    The flow of electrons through a conducting medium (a solid, liquid, or gas).
  15. Current
    A flow of electric charge.
  16. Conductor
    In electrical circuits, the wire that carries current to an appliance that uses current.
  17. Conductor
    In electrical circuits, the wire that carries current to an appliance that uses current.
  18. Electromagnet
    A core of magnetic material (as iron) surrounded by a coil of wire through which an electric current is passed to magnetize the core.
  19. Transformer
    A device that transfers electric energy from one AC circuit to a second AC circuit, with no direct electrical connection. Transformers use electromagnetic energy to either increase (step up) or decrease (step down) the input voltage that is supplied as an output value appropriate for the load.
  20. Alternating Current
    The most commonly used type of electricity, in which the source changes or reverses the polarity of the terminals, typically 60 times per second in the US and 50 times in other countries.
  21. Direct Current
    An electric current flowing in only one direction and substantially constant in value.
  22. Leads
    The external wiring connections to an electrical system.
  23. Single-Phase
    Of or relating to a circuit energized by a single alternating electromotive force.
  24. Short Circuit
    A condition that occurs when a problem in a circuit (a fault) allows the current to bypass the designed load or device. The result is a low-resistance circuit with a correspondingly high current.
  25. Voltmeter
    A meter that is connected across the terminals of either a source of applied emf (electromotive force) or a circuit component to measure the emf or voltage.
  26. Ammeter
    A meter that measures the flow of electric current in amperes (A).
  27. Power Factor
    The ratio of real power (in watts) to apparent power (in voltamperes) expressed as a decimal or as a percentage.
  28. Wattmeter
    A meter installed in a circuit to determine power consumption.
  29. Reactance
    The part of the impedance of an AC circuit that is due to capacitance or inductance or both and that is expressed in ohms.
  30. Impedance
    The relationship of resistance, capacitive reactance, and inductive reactance in an electrical circuit; abbreviated Z.
  31. Ohm's Law
    A law expressing a definite quantifiable relationship among electromotive force (voltage), resistance (ohms), and current (amperes). Simply stated, a current of one ampere will flow when an emf of one volt is applied to a resistance of one ohm.

    Voltage = Current x Resistance

    E = Ix R

    R = E/I

    I = E/R
  32. Wire
    The most common type of electrical conductor. It is used to conduct electricity and is constructed of one or more strands of cylindrical metal.
  33. Cable
    Two or more single conductors within a single jacket or sheath.
  34. Electrical Circuit
    Consists of at least three components - a source, a load, and a complete path. Also normally includes some type of control device, such as a switch.
  35. Dedicated Circuit
    An electrical circuit or telephone line reserved exclusively for one appliance or occupant.
  36. Rotary Switches
    Mechanical switches that use rotary action to engage one or more contacts.
  37. Arcing
    The flow of electricity across a small gap between two contacts.
  38. Fuse
    A device that provides overcurrent protection by acting as a controlled weak link in a circuit. The metal ribbon or element is made of an alloy that will melt from the heat of an overcurrent condition.
  39. Circuit Breaker
    A device that allows a circuit to be opened or closed manually. This device will also open a circuit automatically if a predetermined amount of current flows through it.
  40. Thermal Circuit Breaker
    A device designed so a circuit can be opened and closed manually, and one that trips when the excessive current generates heat.
  41. Magnetic Circuit Breaker
    A device designed so a circuit can be opened and closed manually, and one that trips when the excessive current activates the magnetic mechanism.
  42. GFCI (ground-fault circuit interrupter).
    An electrical device that automatically opens a circuit when it detects a current to ground in excess of some set value.
  43. Distribution Panel Boards
    Large metal cabinets containing circuit breakers of fused switches.
  44. Branch Circuit Panel Boards
    Small metal cabinets containing up to 42 circuit breakers.
  45. Efficiency
    The ratio of energy output in work performed by a motor to the electric energy input to the motor.
  46. Load
    The resistance that a system must overcome to accomplish the job it was designed to do.
  47. Variable Frequency Drive
    A solid-state device used to vary the speed of a typical three-phase induction motor to satisfy change in load.
  48. Phase Loss
    When one fuse in a three-phase circuit blows, it causes the motor to run on two phases.
  49. Motor Control Center
    A device that makes it possible to remotely control and provide circuit protection for motors installed in a building.
  50. Brownouts
    Planned drops in voltage of 5% or more at a time.
  51. Blackouts
    Total electric supply failures.
  52. Demand Factor
    The ratio of the maximum demand on a system to the total connected load of the system.
  53. Diversity
    The effect of not all connected equipment operating at any one time nor running continuously at full capacity.
  54. Conduit
    An enclosure for wire or cable whose primary purpose is to protect the wires running through it from physical damage and excessive moisture. Metal conduit may also serve as a continuous grounding connection.
  55. Bus Bars
    Electrical distribution equipment constructed of heavy, bare copper (a conductor); supported in and insulated from the cabinet in which they are installed. These devices allow for easy connection to the distribution points within the main panel.
  56. EMT (Electrical Metallic Tubing)
    A very popular metal conduit for nonwatertight applications.
  57. Clean Power
    Electric power that has been filtered to eliminate any electromagnetic interference, harmonic distortion, and noise.
  58. Battery Charger
    Keeps batteries fully charged and ready for use.
  59. Bus Bars
    Electrical distribution equipment constructed of heavy, bare copper (a conductor); supported in and insulated from the cabeint in which they are installed. These devices allow for easy connection to the distribution points within the main panel.
  60. Harmonics
    Distortion of both the voltage and current in an electrical system.
  61. Capacitor
    An electrical device that stores electricity for short periods of time by establishing an electrostatic field between two conducting media.
  62. Power Factor
    An electronic device sold by motor control manufactureres that monitors and improves power factor.
  63. Dielectric
    A material placed between the two plates of a capacitor.
  64. Kelvin
    A unit of measurement used to determine color temperature. The Kelvin tempreature scale has its zero point at -273 degrees Celsius, or absolute zero.
  65. Halide
    A binary compound of a halogen with a more electropositive element or radical.
  66. Glare
    Any brightness from a light source within the field of vision that causes the viewer discomfort; excessive contrast between a light source and surrounding areas that results in impaired vision.
  67. Louver
    A finned or vaned device for controling a flow of air or the radiation of light.
  68. Photocell
    An electronic device whose electrical properties are modified by the action of light; also called a photoelectric cell.
  69. Glazing
    The glass panels in window frames.
  70. Reflectance
    The ratio of light reflected from a surface to that which initially strkes the surface.
  71. Illuminance
    The quantity of light at a point on a surface, expressed in footcandles.
  72. Contrast Ratio
    A numeric ratio of the light reflectance values of two surfaces.
  73. Ballast
    A transformer of solid-state device, located in an arc discharge fixture, that regulates the voltage and amperage of the electricity suplied to the lamp and starting circuit, especially fluorescent fixtures.
  74. Photometric
    Of or relating to photometry (the measurement of the intensity of light) or the photometer (an instrument for measuring light intensity).
  75. Uniform Lighting
    A system in which the entire area is lit at about the same level, using any method from direct to indirect.
  76. Accent Lighting
    Lighting that provides an unusual or dramatic effect to accentuate or draw attention to a specific object or area.
  77. Task Lighting
    Lighting designed to illuminate a specific work area (for instance, a work surface) for one worker.
  78. Diffuser
    A device (as a reflector) for distributing the light of a lamp evenly.
  79. Ambient Lighting
    General level of illumination.
  80. Chromaticity
    A common measurement of the color of a light source based on heat; measured in degrees Kelvin (K).
  81. Troffer
    A typical recessed fluorescent tube lighting fixture. It is an inverted rectangular trough in suspended ceilings. The recessed portion of most multiple-lamp fluorescent fixtures; normally white or silver to allow for maximum reflectance.
  82. Aperture
    The opening in an optical system that determines the diameter of the bundle of rays traversing the instrument.
  83. Dimmer
    A device that reduces the output of light from a lamp, either with or without a reduction in the energy supplied to the light fixture.
  84. ROI (Return on Investment)
    The total profit divided by th total amount originally invested to gain a profit. This method gauges performance on an investment based on total money invested.
  85. NOI (Net Operating Income)
    Income that remains after deducting all fixed and operating expenses.
  86. Benchmarking
    Establishing a standard of performacne against which something can be compared or measured.
  87. Plug Load
    The total electrical demand from appliances plugged into conventional wall and raceway outlets.
  88. O&M
    Operation & maintenance of building systems.
  89. Audit
    A methodical examination and review; energy audits are designed to examine energy use and costs.
  90. Hoistway
    A vertical shaft in a building in which an elevator operates.
  91. Duty
    The particular capacity and speed of a machine.
  92. Dispatching
    The process used to determine which elevator responds to a hall call at a particular floor.
  93. Handrails
    Endless belts on each side of an escalator installation that provide passengers with handholds for stability while riding.
  94. Truss
    The welded steel structural foundation providing a rigid support for the various components of an escalator.
  95. Newel
    The hadnrail and sides that extend beyond the bottom of an "up" escalator and the top of a "down" escalator.
  96. Baulstrade
    The portion of an escalator installation that consists of the handrails, deckign or deck boards, interior side panels, and skirt boards.
  97. Skirt
    The protective panels or boards fastened vertically to the truss and positioned adjacent to the steps, running parallel to the length of the balustrade; also called a skirt board.
  98. Hoistway
    A vertical shaft in a building in which an elevator operates.
  99. Proration
    A pro rata distribution (divided, distributed, or assessed proportionately).
  100. Commutator
    That portion of the rotor on which the brushes from the stator ride or make electrical contact in a DC motor.
  101. Cam
    A rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa.
  102. Gib
    A plate of metal or other material machined to hold other parts in place, to afford a bearing surface, or to provide means for overcoming looseness.
  103. Performance Modernization
    Buying new components to bring a system or equipment up to modern standards.
  104. Retrofit
    Replacing parts on a piece of equipment and not replacing the whole thing. This is performed generally as a cost savings effort.
  105. Prestige Cleaning
    Regular cleaning of surfaces even if dirt is not visible.
  106. Clinical Cleaning
    Cleaning that removes all traces of dirt of any kind, as well as bacteria and viruses.
  107. Specialized Cleaning
    Removing dirt from critical environments containing technical equipment.
  108. Slop Sink
    A deep sink or curbed floor fixture with hot and cold water and a drain.
  109. Disinfectant
    A cleaning agent that inhibits, neutralizes, or destroys bacteria; may contain synthetic pheols, quaternary ammonium, sodium hypochlorite (bleach), or iodine.
  110. Airborne Dirt
    Dirt that includes dust, pollen, bird droppings, dead bugs, and other natural debris.
  111. Ammonia
    A pungent, colorless, gasious alkaline compound of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3) that is very soluble in water and can easily be condensed to a liquid by cold and pressure.
  112. Davit
    A crane that is fastened to a structure and projects over the side.
  113. Ferrous
    Metal that is, relates to, or contains iron.
  114. Galvanized
    Coated with zinc
  115. Anodize
    To subject a metal to electrolytic action to coat with protective or decorative film.
  116. Annual
    Planting that germinates from seed, grows and blooms, forms seeds, and dies within one growing season.
  117. Perennial
    A bedding that, once established, reappears every year.
  118. Bio-Swale
    A nonirrigated stormwater pathway designed for increased absorption of rainwater.
  119. Humus
    Partially decomposed organic matter.
  120. Gypsum
    A widely distributed mineral consisting of hydrous calcium sulfate.
  121. Compost
    Organic matter made from decaying remains of plants and animals.
  122. Sump Pump
    A pump to remove accumulations of liquid (as water) from a sump pit (the lowest point in a drainage system).
  123. Corrosion
    The gradual wearing away of material, usually by chemical action.
  124. Bait
    A luring material (poisonous or nonpoisonous) placed where it will be eaten by harmful or objectionable animals or pests.
  125. Parasitosis
    Infestation with or diseased caused by parasites.
  126. Berm
    A mound or wall of earth or sand.
  127. Guano
    Bird or bat excrement
  128. Source Reduction
    Efforts to reduce the creation an duse of waste materials that will become waste.
  129. Waste Generator
    The organization that produces waste or turns material into waste.
  130. Solid Waste
    Any discarded (abandoned, disposed of, recycled) material; includes hazardous as well as non-hazardous waste.
  131. Pathogen
    A specific causative agent (as a bacterium or virus) of disease.
  132. Regulated Generators
    Generators that produce more than 220 lb. of hazardous waste per month or more than 1/2 lb. of acutely hazardous waste per month.
  133. Waste Audit
    An analysis conducted periodicially in conjunction with a waste service company to evaluate and predict the occupants' current and future waste streams.

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