HR Test #3 Ch 13 Part 1
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addresses potential conflicts of interests among different groups of stakeholders in an organization. The name of the theory, and some of its basic principles, is derived from the fact that, in most modern organizations, the individuals who own a firm do not actually run it on a daily basis. Problems arise when the interests of the owners (the principals) are in conflict with the interests of the managers (agents).
is the combination of positive reinforcement with either punishment or extinction that replaces an undesired behavior with a desired behavior.
involves doing things at work that are innovative and provide some value for the organization.
dual factor theory
A need–based theory proposed by Frederick Herzberg, dual factor theory identifies motivators and hygiene factors as two sets of conditions at work that can satisfy needs. Research into this theory, however, has provided little empirical support for its model.
(or expectancy) is a person’s perception of the probability that an increase in effort will result in an increase in performance. This can range from 0 to 1.0.
is concerned with a person’s perceived inputs to a (work) setting and the outcomes received from that setting. The theory suggests that everyone calculates the ratio of inputs to outcomes, similar to considering a return on any investment.
A need–based theory of motivation proposed by Clayton Alderfer, ERG theory involves three rather than two levels of needs, and also allows for someone to regress from a higher–level need to a lower–level need.
(or VIE theory) is a fairly complex process theory of motivation that casts the employee in the role of decision maker. Basically, an employee decides whether or not to exert effort, depending on the outcomes he or she anticipates receiving for those efforts as based on calculations concerning expectancies, instrumentalities, valences, and the links among these three components.
Also a term from reinforcement theory, extinction refers to the situation in which a behavior is followed by no consequences and eventually disappears.
Fixed interval schedules
are interval schedules in which the amount of time that must pass before a reward is given is constant over time.
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