HR Test #3 Ch 13 Part 2
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Fixed ratio schedules
are ratio schedules in which the number of times a behavior must occur before it is rewarded remains constant over time.
First proposed by Ed Locke, goal theory is a fairly simple model of motivation based on the premise that people with goals work harder than people without goals. Beyond that, the theory suggests that not all goals are created equal, and that goals that are difficult and yet specific and concrete will motivate employees best.
hierarchy of needs
Probably the best known of the need–based theories, the hierarchy of needs model proposed by Abraham Maslow specifies five levels of needs that are capable of motivating behavior: physiological, security, social, esteem, and self–actualization.
are partial reinforcement schedules in which behavior is reinforced as a function of the passage of time—for example, rewarding someone every 10 minutes as long as they were exhibiting desired behavior.
is the motivation to do work because it is interesting, engaging, or possibly challenging rather than because someone is rewarding us to do the work.
determines how a person will exert his or her effort. It represents the forces operating on the person to exert effort, as well as the direction in which that effort will be exerted.
are theories of motivation that focus on what motivates a person, rather than on how that motivation occurs.
means rewarding a behavior only part of the time rather than all the time (it can be applied to punishment as well, but the reward case is simpler).
(or instrumentality) is a person’s perception of the probability that improved performance will lead to certain outcomes. Operationally seen as a correlation coefficient indicating that as performance improves, the chances of gaining outcomes can either go up (a positive correlation), remain unchanged (a zero correlation), or go down (a negative correlation).
A term from reinforcement theory, positive reinforcement refers to the situation in which a behavior is followed by positive consequences and thus is likely to be repeated.
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