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  1. What are the components of the external ear?
    • auricle
    • external acoustic meatus
    • tympanic mmbrane
  2. auricle
    • Auricle
    • - surrounds entrance to external acoustic meatus
    • - protects opening of canal
    • - provides directional sensitivity
  3. external acoustic meatus
    ends at tympanic membrane (eardrum)
  4. tympanic membrane
    • is a thin, semitransparent sheet
    • separates external ear from middle ear
  5. Explain the middle ear.
    • tympanic cavity
    • auditory tube
    • auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)
  6. Explain hearing.
    • auditory ossicles
    • - convert pressure fluctuation in air into much greater pressure fluctuations in perilymph of cochlea
    • frequency of sound
    • intensity (volume)
  7. Frequency of sound
    determined by which part of cochlear duct is stimulated
  8. Intensity (volume)
    determined by number of hair cells stimulated
  9. Vibration of Tympanic Membrane
    • converts arriving sound waves into mechanical movements
    • auditory ossicles conduct vibrations to inner ear
    • tensor tympani muscle
    • stapedius muscle
  10. What does the tensor tympani muscle do?
    stiffens typanic membrane
  11. What does the stapedius muscle do?
    reduces movement of stapes at oval window
  12. Explain the cochlea of the inner ear?
    -contains cochlear duct (elongated portion of membranous labyrinth)- receptors provide sense of hearing
  13. Explain the round window of the inner ear?
    • thin, membranous partition
    • separates perilymph from air spaces of middle ear
  14. Explain the ovalwindow of the inner ear?
    • formed of collagen fibers
    • connected to base of stapes
  15. Effects of Aging on the Ear
    • with age, damage accumulates
    • - tympanic membrane gets less flexible
    • - articulations between ossicles stiffen
    • - round window may begin to ossify
  16. What does the internal ear contain?
    • contains fluid called endolymph
    • bony labyrinth surrounds and protects membranous labyrinth
    • subdivided into : vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea
  17. Explain the vestibule of the inner ear?
    • encloses saccule and utricle
    • receptors provide sensations of gravity and linear acceleration
  18. Explain the semicircular canals of the inner ear?
    • contain semicircular ducts
    • receptors stimulated by rotation of head
  19. Explain equilibrium.
    • sensations provided by receptors of vestibular complex
    • Hair cells
    • - basic receptors of inner ear
    • - provide information about direction and strength of mechanical stimuli
  20. Explain the semicircular ducts
    • are continuous with utricle
    • each duct contains:
    • - ampulla with gelatinous cupula
    • - associated sensory receptors
    • - stereocilia--resemble long microvilli
    •     --- are on the surface of hair cell
  21. Explain the utricle and saccule
    • maculae
    • - oval structures where hair cells cluster
  22. Explain the ceruminous glands
    • integumentary glands along external acoustic meatus
    • secrete waxy material (cerumen)
    • - keeps foreign objects out of tympanic membrane
    • - slows growth of microorganisms in external acoustic meatus
  23. __ causes the ear to vibrate [like a flickering flame on a candle]
    air pressure
  24. __ acts as a __ to funnel that air in to hit that __.
    • outer ear (pinna--or--oracle)
    • funnel
    • tympanic membrane
  25. The bones are attahced to each other and are _, hanging like a motor vehicle. They act as __ that __ the sound to allow it to go over to the __.
    What will levers do?
    • suspended
    • levers
    • amplify
    • oval window
    • amplify force
  26. The stapes is literally attached to the __, which is another membrane that separates the __ from a portion of the __.
    • oval window
    • middle ear
    • inner ear (vestibular canal)
  27. __ is inside of the inner ear. 
    __ of the 206 bones in the body are in the ears. 
    The oval window is not even __ the size of the __. 
    The __ is impeding on the __, which sets in motion the fluid of __.
    • Perilymph
    • six
    • 1/3
    • tympanic membrane
    • stapes
    • oval window
    • cochlea
  28. How do we perceive frequencies?
    • by the distance of the first wave from the oval window
    • humans can get up to 20,000 range
  29. The closer it is to the oval window, the what?
    higher the frequency is
  30. The structure of the human ear
    - The hair cells are __.
    - you are opening channels; there are channels in between these __ that, when the wave comes through, __.
    • microvilli
    • stereo cilia (papercuts)
    • ions trickle, creating EPSPs
  31. The inner ear is also important for __ and __.
    balance and equilibrium
  32. What is the vestibular canal?
    the fluid you set in motion
  33. Wave = ?
    distortion happening and pressing on the middle canal, the cochlear duct
  34. True or False:
    You can detect velocity.
    • False:
    • cannot
Card Set:
2013-04-05 22:39:38
BIO 220

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